A preliminary investigation of boundary layer effects on daytime atmospheric CO2 concentrations at a mountaintop location in the Rocky Mountains

Czasopismo : Acta Geophysica
Tytuł artykułu : A preliminary investigation of boundary layer effects on daytime atmospheric CO2 concentrations at a mountaintop location in the Rocky Mountains

Autorzy :
Shapiro, A.
School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA, ashapiro@ou.edu,
Axelsen, S. L.
IMAU, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, s.l.axelsen@uu.nl,
Axelsen, S. L.
IMAU, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, s.l.axelsen@uu.nl,
Steeneveld, G. J.
Department of Meteorology and Air Quality,Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, gert-jan.steeneveld@wur.nl,
Martínez, D.
Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Mallorca, Spain, dani.martinez@uib.cat,
De Wekker, S. F. J.
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USAInstitute, Steamboat Springs, CO, USA, dewekker@virginia.edu,
Abstrakty : Observations of CO2 concentration at a mountaintop in the Colorado Rockies in summer show a large diurnal variability with minimum CO2 concentrations found between 10:00 and 18:00 MST. Simulations are performed with a mesoscale model to examine the effects of atmospheric structure and large-scale flows on the diurnal variability. In the simulations initialized without large-scale winds, the CO2 minimum occurs earlier compared to the observations. Upslope flows play an important role in the presence of this early (pre-noon) minimum while the timing and magnitude of the minimum depend only weakly on the temperature structure. An increase in large-scale flow has a noticeable impact on the diurnal variability with a more gradual decrease in daytime CO2 concentration, similar to summer-averaged observations. From the idealized simulations and a case study, it is concluded that multi-scale flows and their interactions have a large influence on the observed diurnal variability.

Słowa kluczowe : mesoscale circulations, atmospheric boundary layer, complex terrain, CO2 concentration, mountaintop observatory,
Wydawnictwo : Instytut Geofizyki PAN
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 57, no. 4
Strony : 904 – 922
Bibliografia : Bakwin, P.S., P.P. Tans, D.F. Hurst, and C. Zhao (1998), Measurements of carbon dioxide on very tall towers: Results of the NOAA/CMDL program, Tellus B 50, 401-415.
Bakwin, P.S., K.J. Davis, C. Yi, S.C. Wofsy, J.W. Munger, L. Haszpra, and Z. Barcza (2004), Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from mixing ratio data, Tellus B 56, 301-311.
Baltensperger, U., H.W. Gaggeler, D.T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski,
E. Weingartner, and P. Seibert (1997), Aerosol climatology at the highalpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19707-19715.
Borys, R.D., and M.A. Wetzel (1997), Storm Peak Laboratory: a research, teaching and service facility for the atmospheric sciences, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 78.
Cotton, W.R., R.A. Pielke Sr., R.L. Walko, G.E. Liston, C.J. Tremback, H. Jiang, R.L. McAnelly, J.Y. Harrington, M.E. Nicholls, G.G. Carrio, and J.P. McFadden (2003), RAMS 2001: Current status and future directions, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 82, 5-29.
De Wekker, S.F.J., D.G. Steyn, and S. Nyeki, (2004), A comparison of aerosol layer- and convective boundary layer structure over a mountain range Turing STAAARTE’97, Bound.-Layer Meteor. 113, 249-271.
Fiedler, F., I. Bischoff-Gauß, N. Kalthoff, and G. Adrian (2000), Modeling of the transport and diffusion of a tracer in the Freiburg-Schauinsland area, J. Geophys. Res. 105, D1, 1599-1610.
Gloor, M., P. Bakwin, D. Hurst, L. Lock, R. Draxler, and P. Tans (2001), What is the concentration footprint of a tall tower?, J. Geophys. Res. 106, D16.
Helliker, B.R., J.A. Berry, A.K. Betts, P.S. Bakwin, K.J. Davis, A.S. Denning, J.R. Ehleringer, J.B. Miller, M.P. Butler, and D.M. Ricciuto (2004), Estimates of net CO2 flux by application of equilibrium boundary layer concepts to CO2 and water vapor measurements from a tall tower, J. Geophys. Res. 109, D20, 1-13.
Hindman, E.E., M.A. Campbell, and R.D. Borys (1994), A ten-winter record of cloud-droplet physical and chemical properties at a mountaintop site in Colorado, J. Appl. Meteor. 33, 797-807.
Holzworth, G.C. (1964), Estimates of mean maximum mixing depths in the contiguous united states. Monthly Weath. Rev. 92, 235-242.
Keeling, C.D., R.B. Bacastow, A.E. Bainbridge, C.A. Jr. Ekdahl, P.R. Guenther, L.S. Waterman, and J.F.S. Chin (1976), Atmospheric carbon-dioxide variations at Mauna-Loa Observatory, Hawaii, Tellus 28, 6, 538-551.
Lagouvardos, K., V. Kotroni, and G.Kallos (1996), Exploring the effects of different types of model initialisation: Simulation of a severe air-pollution episode in Athens, Greece, Meteorol. Appl. 3, 147-155.
Law, R.M., W. Peters, C. Rödenbeck, C. Aulagnier, I. Baker, D.J. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, J. Brandt, L. Bruhwiler, P.J. Cameron-Smith, J.H. Christensen, F. Delage, A.S. Denning, S. Fan, C. Geels, S. Houweling, R. Imasu, U. Karstens, S.R. Kawa, J. Kleist, M.C. Krol, S.-J. Lin, R. Lokupitiya, T. Maki, S. Maksyutov, Y. Niwa, R. Onishi, N. Parazoo, P. K. Patra, G. Pieterse, L. Rivier, M. Satoh, S. Serrar, S. Taguchi, M. Takigawa, R. Vautard, A. T. Vermeulen, and Z. Zhu (2008), TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: Experimental overview and diurnal cycle results for 2002, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22, GB3009.
Lowenthal, D.H., R.D. Borys, and M.A. Wetzel (2002), Aerosol distributions and cloud interactions at a mountaintop laboratory, J. Geophys. Res. 107, D18,4345.
Lugauer, M., U. Baltensperger, M. Furger, H.W. Gaggeler, D.T. Jost, M. Schwikowski, and H. Wanner (1998), Aerosol transport to the high Alpine sites Jungfraujoch (3454 m asl) and Colle Gnifetti (4452 m asl), Tellus B 50, 76-92.
Monson, R.K., A.A. Turnipseed, J.P. Sparks, P.C. Harley, L.E. Scott-Denton, K.L. Sparks, and T.E. Huxman (2002), Carbon sequestration in a high-elevation, subalpine forest, Global Change Biology 8, 459-478.
Obrist D, A.G. Hallar, I. McCubbin, B.B. Stephens, and T. Rahn (2008), Measurements of atmospheric mercury at Storm Peak Laboratory in the Rocky Mountains: Evidence for long-range transport from Asia, boundary layer contributions, and plant mercury uptake, Atmos. Environ. 42, 7579-7589.
Pales, J.C. and C.D. Keeling, (1965), The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in Hawaii, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 6053-6076.
Pielke, R.A., W.R. Cotton. R.L. Walko, C.J. Tremback. W.A. Lyons, L.D. Grasso, M.E. Nicholls, M.D. Moran, D.A. Wesley, T.J. Lee, and J.H. Copeland (1992), A comprehensive meteorological modeling system–RAMS, Meteor. Atmos. Phys. 49, 69-91.
Seibert, P., H. Kromp-Kolb, A. Kasper, M. Kalina, H. Puxbaum, D.T. Jost, M. Schwikowski, and U. Baltensperger (1998), Tranport of polluted Bondary layer air from the Po Valley to high-alpine sites, Atmos. Environ. 32, 3953-3965.
Stephens B., A. Watt, G. Maclean (2006), An autonomous inexpensive robust CO2 analyzer (AIRCOA). In: Thirteenth WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques, WMO TD 1359, pp. 95-99, .
Sun, J., S.P. Oncley, S.P. Burns, B.B. Stephens, D.H. Lenschow, T. Campos, R.K. Monson, D.S. Schimel, W.J. Sacks, S.F.J. De Wekker, C. Lai, B. Lamb, D. Ojima, P.Z. Ellsworth, L.S.L. Sternberg, S. Zhong, C. Clements, D.J.P. Moore, D.E. Anderson, A.S. Watt, J. Hu, M. Tschudi, S. Aulenbach, E. Allwine, and T. Coons (2009), A multi-scale and multidiscplinary investigation of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange over the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. (in press).
Thoning, K.W., P.P. Tans, and W.D. Komhyr (1989), Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory. 2: Analysis of the NOAA/GMCC data, 1974- 1985, J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8549-8565.
Walko, R.L., L.E. Band, J. Baron, T.G.F. Kittel, R. Lammers, T.J. Lee, D. Ojima, R.A. Pielke Sr., C. Taylor, C. Tague, C.J. Tremback, and P.L. Vidale (2000), Coupled atmosphere–biophysics–hydrology models for environment al modeling, J. Appl. Meteor. 39, 931-944.
Walko, R.L., C.J. Tremback, and M.J Bell (2001), HYPACT. Hybrid particle and concentration transport model. User’s guide, 35 pp. (available from ASTER Division, Mission Research Corporation, P.O. Box 466, Fort Collins.
Watson, J.G., D. Blumenthal, J. Chow, C. Cahill, L.W. Richards, D. Dietrich, R. Morris, J. Houck , R.J. Dickson, and S. Andersen (1996), Mt. Zirkel wilderness area reasonable attribution study of visibility impairment. Vol. II: Results of data analysis and modelling. Part 1: Final Report, July 1, prepared for Technical Steering Committee c/o Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Control Division, Denver, CO. Weiss-Penzias, P., D.A. Jaffe, P. Swartzendruber, J.B. Dennison, D. Chand, W. Hafner, and E. Prestbo, (2006), Observations of Asian air pollution in the free troposphere at Mount Bachelor Observatory during the spring of 2004. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D10304.
Whiteman, C.D. (1982), Breakup of temperature inversions in deep mountain valleys. Part I. Observations, J. Appl. Meteor. 21, 270-289.
Cytuj : Shapiro, A. ,Axelsen, S. L. ,Axelsen, S. L. ,Steeneveld, G. J. ,Martínez, D. ,De Wekker, S. F. J. , A preliminary investigation of boundary layer effects on daytime atmospheric CO2 concentrations at a mountaintop location in the Rocky Mountains. Acta Geophysica Vol. 57, no. 4/2009