Journal : Acta Chromatographica
Article : Analysis of 2-Chloroacetophenone in air by multi-fiber solid-phase microextraction and fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Authors :
Komsta, Ł.
Medical University of Lublin Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy Jaczewskiego 4 20-090 Lublin Poland, lukasz.komsta@am.lublin.pl,
Zięba, A.
The Medical University of Silesia Department of Organic Chemistry ul. Jagiellońska 4 41-200 Sosnowiec Poland, zieba@edu.sum.pl,
Prus, W.
he University of Bielsko-Biała Institute of Environmental Protection and Engineering ul. Willowa 2 43-309 Bielsko-Biała Poland,
Pacenti, M.
University of Florence Occupational Health Division, Department of Public Health Viale Morgagni 48 50100 Florence Italy,
Dugheri, S.
University of Florence Occupational Health Division, Department of Public Health Viale Morgagni 48 50100 Florence Italy,
Gagliano-Candela, R.
University of Bari Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health P.zza G. Cesare 11 70124 Bari Italy,
Strisciullo, G.
University of Bari Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health P.zza G. Cesare 11 70124 Bari Italy,
Franchi, E.
University of Florence Organic Chemistry Department/ProtEra Srl (Spin Off of Magnetic Resonance Center) Via Lastruccia 13 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence Italy,
Degli Esposti, F.
Chromline Srl Via Anita Garibaldi 40 59100 Prato Italy,
Perchiazzi, N.
Chromline Srl Via Anita Garibaldi 40 59100 Prato Italy,
Boccalon, P.
University of Florence Occupational Health Division, Department of Public Health Viale Morgagni 48 50100 Florence Italy,
Arcangeli, G.
University of Florence Occupational Health Division, Department of Public Health Viale Morgagni 48 50100 Florence Italy,
Cupelli, V.
University of Florence Occupational Health Division, Department of Public Health Viale Morgagni 48 50100 Florence Italy,
Abstract : 2-Chloroacetophenone (CA) is widely used as tear gas by law-enforcement agents, and by civilians for personal protection. Crimes involving robbery and rape using tear gas sprays have recently increased. Experimental and in-field evaluations have been performed to validate use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a porous fiber for sampling and analysis of CA in air before analysis by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with a new device called a multi-fiber system. CA vapor was generated by use of a syringe pump in a dynamic system in which temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity were monitored. The theoretical sampling rate for time-weighted average and rapid-SPME were, furthermore, estimated by use of the Fuller-Schettler-Giddings diffusion coefficient and the theory of heat transfer, respectively, and were in accordance with experimental values. Concentrations of CA were analyzed in a military store containing tear gas canisters, to evaluate the risk. The results obtained in this field study showed values ranging from 0.206 to 2.46 mg m −3.

Keywords : Multi Fiber SPME, Fast GC-MS, 2-Chloroacetophenone, sampling rate, diffusion coefficient,
Publishing house : University of Silesia in Katowice
Publication date : 2009
Number : Vol. 21, no. 3
Page : 379 – 397

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DOI :
Qute : Komsta, Ł. ,Zięba, A. ,Prus, W. ,Pacenti, M. ,Dugheri, S. ,Gagliano-Candela, R. ,Strisciullo, G. ,Franchi, E. ,Degli Esposti, F. ,Perchiazzi, N. ,Boccalon, P. ,Arcangeli, G. ,Cupelli, V. ,Cupelli, V. , Analysis of 2-Chloroacetophenone in air by multi-fiber solid-phase microextraction and fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acta Chromatographica Vol. 21, no. 3/2009
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