Journal : Acta Chromatographica
Article : Analysis of counterfeit drugs by thin layer chromatography

Authors :
Sherma, J.
Department of Chemistry, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042, USA,
Abstract : Economical and reliable thin layer chromatography methods for rapid screening of counterfeit drugs are described. The methods, which can be carried out in the field by inspectors with limited expertise, are based on the use of portable kits with standard reference tablets to eliminate weighing. Separations are performed on silica gel layers containing fluorescent indicator, and separated spots are detected under ultraviolet lamps and with iodine detection reagent. Development and iodine detection are carried out in polyethylene bags or glass jars. Sample spots are compared to reference standards developed on the same layer to identify the active ingredient and determine if its content is within the specification range. Additional methods described are visual inspection of packages and their contents and simple colorimetric tests for active ingredients, as well as column chromatographic and spectrometric methods for augmenting and validating TLC results.

Keywords :
Publishing house : University of Silesia in Katowice
Publication date : 2007
Number : No. 19
Page : 5 – 20

: 1 Report of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Combating Counterfeit Drugs, (2004)
2 A.K. Deisingh, Analyst, 130, 271 (2005)
3 P.N. Newton, M.D. Green, F.M. Fernandez, N.P. Day, and N.J. White, Lancet Infect. Dis., 6, 602 (2006)
4 R. Mukhopadhyay, Anal. Chem., 79, 2623 (2007)
5 R.W.O Jahnke, Pharm. Ind., 66, 1187 (2004)
6 A.M. Dondrop, P.N. Newton, M. Mayxay, W. Van Damme, F.M. Smithuis, S. Yeung, A. Petit, A.J. Lynam, A. Johnson, T.T. Hien, R. McGready, J.J. Farrar, S. Looareesuwan, N.P. Day, M.D. Green, and N.J. White, Trop. Med. Int. Health (TM & IH), 9, 1241 (2004)
7 P.E. Flinn, Y.H. Juhl, and T.P. Layloff, Bull. World Health Org., 67, 555 (1989)
8 P.E. Flinn, A.S. Kenyon, and T.P. Layloff, J. Liq. Chromatogr., 15, 1639 (1992)
9 A.S. Kenyon, P.E. Flinn, and T.P. Layloff, J. AOAC Int., 78, 41 (1995)
10 A.S. Kenyon, S. Xiaoye, W. Yan, N.W. Har, R. Prestridge, and K. Sharp, J. AOAC Int., 81, 44 (1998)
11 T.A. Kenyon, A.S. Kenyon, B.V. Kgarebe, D. Mothibedi, N. Binken, and T. Layloff, Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 3, S 347 (1999)
12 K.F. Laserson, A.S. Kenyon, T.A. Kenyon, T. Layloff, and N.J. Binken, Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 5, 448 (2001)
13 A.S. Kenyon, T. Layloff, and J. Sherma, J. Liq. Chromatogr. Relat. Technol., 24, 1479 (2001)
14 C.-Q. Hu, W.-B. Zou, W.-S. Hu, X.-K. Ma, M.-Z. Yang, S.-L. Zhou, J.-F. Sheng, Y. Li, S.-H. Cheng, and J. Xue, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 40, 68 (2006)
15 P. Pachaly, E. Buese, A. Treitner, and W. Schick, Pharm. Ind., 54, 278 (1992)
16 P. Pachaly and W. Schick, Pharm. Ind., 55, 259 (1993)
17 P.N. Newton, R. McGready, F. Fernandez, M.D. Green, M. Sunjio, C. Bruneton, S. Phanouvong, P. Millet, C.J.M. Whitty, A.O. Talisuna, S. Proux, E.M. Christophel, G. Malenga, P. Singhasivanon, K. Bojang, H. Kaur, K. Palmer, N.P.J. Day, B.M. Greenwood, F. Nosten, and N.J. White, PLoS Medicine, 3, e197 (2006)
19 M.D. Green, D.L. Mount, R.A. Wirtz, and N.J. White, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 24, 65 (2000)
20 P. Risha, Z. Msuya, M. Ndomondo-Sigonda, and T. Layloff, J. AOAC Int., 89, 1300 (2006)
21 J.-C. Wolff, L.A. Thomson, and C. Eckers, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 17, 215 (2003)
22 M.C. Gaudiano, E. Antoniella, P. Bertocchi, and L. Valvo, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 42, 132 (2006)
23 A. Panusa, G. Multari, G. Incarnato, and L. Gagliardi, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 43, 1221 (2007)
24 L. Nyadong, M.D. Green, V.R. De Jesus, P.N. Newton, and F.M. Fernandez, Anal. Chem., 79, 2150 (2007)
25 F.M. Fernandez, R.B. Cody, M.D. Green, C.Y. Hampton, R. McGready, S. Sengaloundeth, N.J. White, and P.N. Newton, ChemMedChem, 1, 702 (2006)
26 C. Ricci, L. Nyadong, F. Fernandez, P.N. Newton, and S.G. Kazarian, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 387, 551 (2007)
27 M.A. Alabdalla, Forensic Sci. Int., 152, 185 (2005)
28 B.A. Olsen and D.E. Kiehl, Am. Pharmaceut. Rev., 9, 115 (2006)
29 M.R. Witkowski, Am. Pharm. Rev., 8, 56 (2005)
30 M. de Veij, P. Vandenabeele, K.A. Hall, F.M. Fernandez, M.D. Green, N.J. White, A.M. Dondrop, P.N. Newton, and L. Moens, J. Raman Spectrosc., 38, 181 (2007)
31 C. Eliasson and P. Matousek, Anal. Chem., 79, 1696 (2007)
32 T. Ninomiya, S. Nomura, K. Taniguchi, and S. Ikeda, Anal. Sci., 11, 489 (1995)
33 K.A. Wolnik, D.T. Heitkemper, J.B. Crowe, B.S. Barnes, and T.W. Brueggmeyer, T. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 10, 177 (1995)
34 J.P. Jasper, B.J. Westenberger, J.A. Spencer, L.F. Buhse, and M. Nasr, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 35, 21 (2004)
35 W.L. Yoon, Am. Pharm. Rev., 8, 115 (2005)
36 O.Y. Rodionova, L.P. Houmoller, A.L. Pomerantsev, P. Geladi, J. Burger, V.L. Dorofeyev, and A.P. Arzamastsev, Anal. Chim. Acta, 549, 151 (2005)
37 J. Dubois, J.-C. Wolff, J.K. Warrack, J. Schoppelrei, and E.N. Lewis, Spectroscopy, 22, 40 (2007)
38 J. Gu, P. Liu, and J.-Y. Feng, Yaoxue Fuwu Yu Yanjiu, 5, 230 (2005)
39 G.T. Greco, K. Williams, M. Tsougros, G. Pyramides, and K. Thomas-Cruse, Pharm. Technol., 23, 72 (1999)
Qute : Sherma, J. ,Sherma, J. , Analysis of counterfeit drugs by thin layer chromatography. Acta Chromatographica No. 19/2007