Journal : Acta Geophysica
Article : Analysis of long-term fluctuations in stream flow time series: An Application to Litani River, Lebanon

Authors :
Saenger, E.
ETH Zurich Geological Institute, Zurich, Switzerland, erik.saenger@erdw.ethz.ch,
Madonna, C.
ETH Zurich Geological Institute, Zurich, Switzerland,
Almqvist, B.
ETH Zurich Geological Institute, Zurich, Switzerland,
Montahaei, M.
Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, mmontaha@ut.ac.ir,
Oskooi, B.
Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, boskooi@ut.ac.ir,
Pal, P.
Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India, pcpal_ism@yahoo.co.in,
Mandal, D.
Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India, dinbandhumandal@gmail.com,
Tsapanos, T.
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Geology, Geophysical Laboratory, Thessaloniki, Greece, tsapanos@geo.auth.gr,
Bayrak, Y.
Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geophysics, Trabzon, Turkey, bayrak@ktu.edu.tr,
Cinar, H.
Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geophysics, Trabzon, Turkey, cinar@ktu.edu.tr,
Koravos, G.
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Geology, Geophysical Laboratory, Thessaloniki, Greece, gkoravos@sch.gr,
Bayrak, E.
Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geophysics, Trabzon, Turkey, bayrak@ktu.edu.tr,
Marzec, P.
AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics, and Environment Protection, Kraków, Poland, marzec@agh.edu.pl,
Niepsuj, M.
AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics, and Environment Protection, Kraków, Poland, magdalena.niepsuj@gmail.com,
Bała, M.
AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics, and Environment Protection, Kraków, Poland, bala@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Pietsch, K.
AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics, and Environment Protection, Kraków, Poland, pietsch@agh.edu.pl,
Xiao, L.
Key Laboratory of Geo-detection (China University of Geosciences), Ministry of Education, Beijing, China, xiaoliang@cugb.edu.cn,
Liu, X.-P.
Geological Exploration and Development Research Institute Sichuan-Changqing Drilling and Exploration Engineering Co., Chengdu, China,
Zou, C.-C.
Key Laboratory of Geo-detection (China University of Geosciences), Ministry of Education, Beijing, China,
Hu, X.-X.
Geological Exploration and Development Research Institute Sichuan-Changqing Drilling and Exploration Engineering Co., Chengdu, China,
Mao, Z. Q.
State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China,
Shi, Y.-J.
Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Changqing Oilfield, PetroChina, Xi’an, China,
Guo, H.-P.
Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Changqing Oilfield, PetroChina, Xi’an, China,
Li, G.-R.
Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Changqing Oilfield, PetroChina, Xi’an, China,
Alam, K.
Geophysics Division, Geological Survey of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan, khurshaidalam@yahoo.com,
Ahmad, N.
Institute of Geology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, envrnet@brain.net.pk,
Shaban, A.
Conseil National des Recherches Scientifiques, Beirut, Lebanon,
Telesca, L.
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale Tito, Italy, luciano.telesca@imaa.cnr.it,
Darwich, T.
Conseil National des Recherches Scientifiques, Beirut, Lebanon,
Amacha, N.
Litani River Authority, Beirut, Lebanon,
Abstract : Litani River is the largest river in Lebanon and has been affected by several physical and anthropogenic factors that influenced its flow dynamics. By means of the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), the time dynamics of the stream flow of seven sites along the course of Litani River was investigated, extracting for each site the long-term trend. A clear decreasing trend characterizes all the long-term trends of the stream flow. Furthermore, several peaks were identified, consistent with the rainfall rate and snow cover variability.

Keywords : analiza widma szczególnego, sprężyny, Liban, run-off, Singular Spectrum Analysis, springs, Lebanon,
Publishing house : Instytut Geofizyki PAN
Publication date : 2014
Number : Vol. 62, no. 1
Page : 164 – 179

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DOI :
Qute : Saenger, E. ,Madonna, C. ,Almqvist, B. ,Montahaei, M. ,Oskooi, B. ,Pal, P. ,Mandal, D. ,Tsapanos, T. ,Bayrak, Y. ,Cinar, H. ,Koravos, G. ,Bayrak, E. ,Marzec, P. ,Niepsuj, M. ,Bała, M. ,Pietsch, K. ,Xiao, L. ,Liu, X.-P. ,Zou, C.-C. ,Hu, X.-X. ,Mao, Z. Q. ,Shi, Y.-J. ,Guo, H.-P. ,Li, G.-R. ,Alam, K. ,Ahmad, N. ,Shaban, A. ,Telesca, L. ,Darwich, T. ,Amacha, N. ,Amacha, N. , Analysis of long-term fluctuations in stream flow time series: An Application to Litani River, Lebanon. Acta Geophysica Vol. 62, no. 1/2014
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