Article : Application of AVO analysis to gas hydrates identification in the northern slope of the South China Sea
Authors : Tsoulis, D.Department of Geodesy and Surveying, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, firstname.lastname@example.org, Patlakis, K.Department of Geodesy and Surveying, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, Ansari, A.Department of Applied Geophysics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India, Khan, P.Department of Applied Geophysics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India, email@example.com, Rehman, S.1National Seismic Monitoring Center, Pakistan Meteorological Department, Islamabad, Pakistan, firstname.lastname@example.org, Lindholm, C.Norwegian Seismic Array, NORSAR, Kjeller, Norway, Ahmed, N.Pakistan Meteorological Department, Islamabad, Pakistan, Rafi, Z.Pakistan Meteorological Department, Islamabad, Pakistan, Erbek, E.Department of Geophysical Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey, email@example.com, Dolmaz, M.Department of Geophysical Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org, Gąsior, I.Oil and Gas Institute, Kraków, Poland, email@example.com, Przelaskowska, A.Oil and Gas Institute, Kraków, Poland, firstname.lastname@example.org, Yang, R.Key Laboratory of Marginal Sea Geology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China, email@example.com, Yan, P.1Key Laboratory of Marginal Sea Geology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China, Wu, N.Guangzhou Center for Gas Hydrate Research, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China;, firstname.lastname@example.org, Sha, Z.Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou, China, Liang, J.Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou, China,
Abstract : Amplitude versus offset (AVO) analysis is a conventional seismic exploration technique in geophysical and lithological interpretation and has been widely used in onshore and offshore exploration. Its use in marine gas hydrate research, however, is still in initial stages. In this study, AVO analysis is applied to seismic profiles at drilling sites where hydrate samples have been recovered. The AVO responses of free gas, bottom simulating reflector (BSRs), and gas hydrates are discussed, and the AVO attributes in relation to gas hydrates are summarized. The results show that changes in intercept, gradient, fluid factor and Poisson’s ratio clearly reflect: (i) location of free gas and the BSR, and (ii) spatial relations between blank zone, BSR, gas hydrate, and free gas.
Bibliography : 1.Berndt, C., S. Bünz., T. Clayton., J. Mienert, and M. Saunders (2004), Seismic character of bottom simulating reflectors: examples from the mid-Norwegian margin, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 21, 6, 723-733, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo. 2004.02.003.
2.Bohrmann, G., W.F. Kuhs, S.A. Klapp, K.S. Techmer, H. Klein, M.M. Murshed, and F. Abegg (2007), Appearance and preservation of natural gas hydrate from Hydrate Ridge sampled during ODP Leg 204 drilling, Mar. Geol. 244, 1-4, 1-14, DOI: 10.1016/j.margeo.2007.05.003.
3.Cordon, I., J. Dvorkin, and G. Mavko (2006), Seismic reflections of gas hydrate from perturbational forward modeling, Geophysics 71, 6, F165-F171, DOI:10.1190/1.2356909.
4.Crutchley, G.J., I.A. Pecher, A.R. Gorman, S.A. Henrys, and J. Greinert (2010), Seismic imaging of gas conduits beneath seafloor seep sites in a shallow marine gas hydrate province, Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand, Mar. Geol. 272, 1-4, 114-126, DOI: 10.1016/j.margeo.2009.03.007.
5.Diaconescu, C.C., R.M. Kieckhefer, and J.H. Knapp (2001), Geophysical evidence for gas hydrates in the deep water of the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 18, 2, 209-221, DOI: 10.1016/S0264-8172(00)00061-1.
6.Hustoft, S., S. Bünz, J. Mienert, and S. Chand (2009), Gas hydrate reservoir and active methane-venting province in sediments on < 20 Ma young oceanic crust in the Fram Strait, offshore NW-Svalbard, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 284, 1-2, 12-24, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.03.038.
7.Lin, C.-C., A.T.-S. Lin, C.-S. Liu, G.-Y. Chen, W.-Z. Liao, and P. Schnurle (2009), Geological controls on BSR occurrences in the incipient arc-continent collision zone off southwest Taiwan, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 26, 7, 1118-1131, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2008.11.002.
8.Løseth, H., M. Gading, and L. Wensaas (2009), Hydrocarbon leakage interpreted on seismic data, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 26, 7, 1304-1319, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2008.09.008.
9.Lu, S., and G.A. McMechan (2002), Estimation of gas hydrate and free gas saturation, concentration, and distribution from seismic data, Geophysics 67, 2, 582-593, DOI: 10.1190/1.1468619.
10.Lu, S., and G.A. McMechan (2004), Elastic impedance inversion of multichannel seismic data from unconsolidated sediments containing gas hydrate and free gas, Geophysics 69, 1, 164-179, DOI: 10.1190/1.1649385.
11.Niu, B.H., P.F. Wen, N. Wen, X. Fu, C.Y. Sun, J. Li, and S. Sun (2006), Estimation of hydrate concentration based on AVO modeling of BSR, Chinese J. Geophys. 49, 1, 143-152, DOI: 0001-5733(2006)01-0143-10 (in Chinese).
12.Ojha, M., and K. Sain (2008), Appraisal of gas-hydrate/free-gas from VP/VS ratio in the Makran accretionary prism, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 25, 7, 637-644, DOI:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2007.10.007.
13.Pautot, G., C. Rangin, A. Briais, P. Tapponnier, P. Beuzart, G. Lericolais, X. Mathieu, J. Wu, S. Han, H. Li, Y. Lu, and J. Zhao (1986), Spreading direction in the central South China Sea, Nature 321, 6066, 150-154, DOI:10.1038/321150a0.
14.Rodrigo, C., E. Vera, and A. González-Fernández (2009), Seismic analysis and distribution of a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) in the Chilean margin offshore of Valdivia (40°S), J. S. Am. Earth Sci. 27, 1, 1-10, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsames.2008.11.001.
15.Ruan, A.-G., J.-B. Li, F.-Y. Chu, and X.-Y. Li (2006), AVO numerical simulation of gas hydrate reflectors beneath seafloor, Chinese J. Geophys. 49, 6, 1665-1675, DOI: 10.1002/cjg2.994.
16.Ryu, B.-J., M. Riedel, J.-H. Kim, R.D. Hyndman, Y.-J. Lee, B.-H. Chung, and I.-S. Kim (2009), Gas hydrates in the western deep-water Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 26, 8, 1483-1498, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.02.004.
17.Shi, W.Z., Z.F. Song, X.L. Wang, and M. Kong (2009), Diapir structure and its origin in the Baiyun depression, Pearl River Mouth Basin, China, Earth Sci. J. China 34, 5, 778-784, DOI: 1000-2383(2009)05-0778-07 (in Chinese).
18.Song, H.-B., O. Matsubayashi, S.-X. Yang, and W.-W. Jiang (2001), Geophysical Researches on Marine Gas Hydrates (II): Seismic Methods, Prog. Geophys. 16, 3, 110-118, DOI: 1004-2903(2001)03-0110-09 (in Chinese).
19.Sun, C.-Y., M.-Y. Zhang, B.-H. Niu, and X.-W. Huang (2003), Study of modeling seismic bottom simulating reflector for natural gas hydrate, Geoscience 17, 3, 337-344, DOI: 1000-8527(2003)03-0337-08 (in Chinese).
20.Sun, L.-T., D. Zhou, C.-M. Chen, W.-H. Zhan, and Z. Sun (2008), Fault structure and evolution of Baiyun Sag in Zhujiang River Mouth Basin, J. Trop.
21.Oceanogr. 27, 2, 25-31, DOI: 1009-5470(2008)02-0025-07 (in Chinese). Taylor, M.H., W.P. Dillon, and I.A. Pecher (2000), Trapping and migration of methane associated with the gas hydrate stability zone at the Blake Ridge Diapir:new insights from seismic data, Mar. Geol. 164, 1-2, 79-89, DOI: 10.1016/S0025-3227(99)00128-0.
22.Tinivella, U., and F. Accaino (2000), Compressional velocity structure and Poisson’s ratio in marine sediments with gas hydrate and free gas by inversion of reflected and refracted seismic data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica),Mar. Geol. 164, 1-2, 13-27, DOI: 10.1016/S0025-3227(99)00123-1.
23.Tinivella, U., F. Accaino, and B. Della Vedova (2008), Gas hydrates and active mud volcanism on the South Shetland continental margin, Antarctic Peninsula,Geo-Mar. Lett. 28, 2, 97-106, DOI: 10.1007/s00367-007-0093-z.
24.Winters, W.J., W.F. Waite, D.H. Mason, L.Y. Gilbert, and I.A. Pecher (2007),Methane gas hydrate effect on sediment acoustic and strength properties,J. Petrol. Sci. Eng. 56, 1-3, 127-135, DOI: 10.1016/j.petrol.2006.02.003.
25.Wood, W.T., P.E. Hart, D.R. Hutchinson, N. Dutta, F. Snyder, R.B. Coffin, and J.F. Gettrust (2008), Gas and gas hydrate distribution around seafloor seeps in Mississippi Canyon, Northern Gulf of Mexico, using multi-resolution seismic imagery, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 25, 9, 952-959, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2008.01.015.
26.Wu, N.-Y., J.-Q. Liang, H.-B. Wang, X. Su, H.-B. Song, S.-Y. Jiang, Y.-H. Zhu, and Z.-Q. Lu (2008), Marine gas hydrate system: State of the art, Geoscience 22, 3, 356-362, DOI: 1000-8527(2008)03-0356-07 (in Chinese).
27.Wu, N.-Y., S.-X. Yang, H.-B. Wang, J.-Q. Liang, Y.-H. Gong, Z.-Q. Lu, D.-D. Wu, and H.-X. Guan (2009), Gas-bearing fluid influx sub-system for gas hydrate geological system in Shenhu Area, Northern South China Sea, Chinese J. Geophys. 52, 6, 1641-1650, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0001-5733.2009.06.027 (in Chinese).
28.Wu, S.-G., G.-X. Zhang, Y.-Y. Huang, J.-Q. Liang, and H.-K. Wong (2005), Gas hydrate occurrence on the continental slope of the northern South China Sea, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 22, 3, 403-412, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2004.11.006.
29.Xu, N., S. Wu, B. Shi, B. Lu, L. Xue, X. Wang, and Y. Jia (2009), Gas hydrate associated with mud diapirs in southern Okinawa Trough, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 26, 8, 1413-1418, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2008.10.001.
30.Yao, B.-C. (2001), The gas hydrate in the South China Sea, J. Trop. Oceanogr. 20, 2, 20-28, DOI: 1009-5470(2001)02-0020-09 (in Chinese).
31.Yao, B.-C., and N.-Y. Wu (2005), Gas hydrate, a future energy resource, Earth Sci. Frontiers 12, 1, 225-233, DOI: 1005-2321(2005)01-0225-09 (in Chinese).
32.Zhang, L., X.-Y. Yin, and C.-Y. Sun (2005). AVO simulation in two-phase media, Prog. Geophys. 20, 2, 319-322, DOI: 1004-2903(2005)02-0319-04 (in Chinese).
Qute : Tsoulis, D. ,Patlakis, K. ,Ansari, A. ,Khan, P. ,Rehman, S. ,Lindholm, C. ,Ahmed, N. ,Rafi, Z. ,Erbek, E. ,Dolmaz, M. ,Gąsior, I. ,Przelaskowska, A. ,Yang, R. ,Yan, P. ,Wu, N. ,Sha, Z. ,Liang, J. ,Liang, J. , Application of AVO analysis to gas hydrates identification in the northern slope of the South China Sea. Acta Geophysica Vol. 62, no. 4/2014