Authors : Lilensten, J.Laboratoire de Planétologie de Grenoble, OSUG-CNRS, Grenoble, France, firstname.lastname@example.org, Zuccarello, F.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Catania, Catania, Italy, email@example.com, Zuccarello, F.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Catania, Catania, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org, Lundstedt, H.Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Lund, Sweden, email@example.com, Kretzschmar, M.LPCE/CNRS, Orléans, France, firstname.lastname@example.org, Contarino, L.INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Catania, Italy, email@example.com, Messerotti, M.INAF-Trieste Astronomical Observatory, Trieste, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org, Desorgher, L.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, email@example.com, Usoskin, I. G.Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Ilya.Usoskin@oulu.fi, Dudok de Wit, T.LPCE, CNRS and University of Orléans, Orléans, France, firstname.lastname@example.org, Valtonen, E.Space Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland, Eino.Valtonen@utu.fi, Spurny, F.Nuclear Physics Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic, email@example.com, Daglis, I.National Observatory of Athens, Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing, Athens, Greece, firstname.lastname@example.org, Romanova, N.Institute of the Physics of the Earth, Moscow, Russia, email@example.com, Milillo, A.INAF/IFSI, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Roma, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Abstract : By using theoretical models of plasma dynamics, it is possible to reconstruct the evolution of many magnetospheric processes; nevertheless, these models need the support of both electric and magnetic field models, and they can simulate known processes only. Conversely, the empirical models are mainly based on statistical analysis; hence, they start from observations, not from processes. Statistical analyses and the derived empirical models are important complements to theoretical models and simulations since the former represent the actual conditions. The empirical models of the inner magnetosphere ion distribution MODEM and of the pitch angle distribution PADEM have proved to be successful in deriving average features of the ring current as well as in obtaining the long-term development of the ion distributions during quiet and disturbed periods. The major goals of this approach are: (1) the description of the equatorial proton population during quiet times and the quantitative characterization of their spatial and energetic distribution; (2) the evidence of some key features of the proton distribution strictly connected to the solar wind characteristics; (3) the investigation of the evolution of magnetospheric ion populations during geomagnetic disturbances and their role in the ring current development. In this paper we review the above-mentioned studies.
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Qute : Lilensten, J. ,Zuccarello, F. ,Zuccarello, F. ,Lundstedt, H. ,Kretzschmar, M. ,Contarino, L. ,Messerotti, M. ,Desorgher, L. ,Usoskin, I. G. ,Dudok de Wit, T. ,Valtonen, E. ,Spurny, F. ,Daglis, I. ,Romanova, N. ,Milillo, A. ,Milillo, A. , Empirical modeling of the ring current. Acta Geophysica Vol. 57, no. 1/2009