Journal : Acta Geophysica
Article : Exceptionally Hot and Cold Summers in Europe (1951-2010)

Authors :
Karakostas, V.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece,,
Papadimitriou, E.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece,,
Mesimeri, M.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece,,
Paradisopoulou, P.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece,,
Gkarlaouni, Ch.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece,,
Trojanowski, J.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,,
Plesiewicz, B.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,
Wiszniowski, J.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,
Danek, T.
Department of Earth Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Canad,
Slawinski, M. A.
Department of Geoinformatics and Applied Computer Science, AGH – University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland,
Baddari, K.
Laboratory of Physics of the Earth UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria / University of Bouira, Bouira, Algeria / Laboratory LIMOSE UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria,
Frolov, A. D.
Geophysical Division NCG, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia,
Tourtchine, V.
Laboratory LIMOSE UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria,
Rahmoune, F.
Laboratory LIMOSE UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria,
Makdeche, S.
Laboratory LIMOSE UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria,
Semenov, V. Yu.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,,
Giorgi, L.
IBAM – National Council of Research, Lecce, Italy,
Leucci, G.
IBAM – National Council of Research, Lecce, Italy,
Narayan, J. P.
Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India,
Arafat, M. Y.
Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India,
Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India,
Lizurek, G.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,,
Rudziński, Ł.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,
Plesiewicz, B.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,
Kwietniak, A.
Academy of Science and Technology AGH, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Kraków, Poland,,
Singh, M. K.
Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India,,
Mahato, N. K.
Department of Mathematics, C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, India,,
Kumar, N.
Department of Mathematics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India,,
Weinerowska-Bords, K.
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland,,
Twardosz, R.
Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland,,
Kossowska-Cezak, U.
Department of Climatology, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland,
Abstract : The paper explores exceptional thermal conditions, an area of research that has increased in significance in the context of the changes that are being observed in climate. Specifically, the study addressed the frequency, long-term change and spatial coverage of exceptionally hot summers, and exceptionally cool summers (EHS and ECS) in Europe. The statistical criterion of plus/minus two standard deviations from the long-term average was used to identify EHS and ECS at 60 weather stations over the period 1951-2010. The study has demonstrated that EHS are characterised by greater temperature anomalies than ECS and are approximately twice as frequent. They occurred virtually everywhere within the study area, whilst ECS are concentrated in its northern part. Five EHS (1972, 2002, 2003, 2007, and 2010) and three ECS (1956, 1962, and 1976) were large enough to be recorded by at least 10% of the stations.

Keywords : cool summers, hot summers, temperature anomaly, Europe,
Publishing house : Instytut Geofizyki PAN
Publication date : 2015
Number : Vol. 63, no. 1
Page : 275– – 300

: 1 Anisimov, O.A., I.I. Borzenkova, E.L. Zhil’tsova, O.K. Zakharova, V.A. Kokorev, S.A. Reneva, and Yu.G. Strel’chenko (2011), Hydrometeorological conditions of the Volga region and current climate changes, Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol. 36, 5, 307-314, DOI: 10.3103/S1068373911050049.
2 BUWAL (2004), Auswirkungen des Hitzesommers 2003 auf die Gewässer. Dokumentation, Schriftenreiche Umwelt, Nr. 369, Gewässerschutz, Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft, Bern (in German).
3 Bardin, M.Yu. (2007), Anticyclonic quasi-stationary circulation and its effect on air temperature anomalies and extremes over western Russia, Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol. 32, 2, 75-84, DOI: 10.3103/S106837390702001X.
4 Bardin, M.Yu. (2011), Scenary forecasts of air temperature variations for the regions of the Russian Federation up to 2030 using the empirical stochastic climate models, Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol. 36, 4, 217-228, DOI: 10.3103/ S1068373911040017.
5 Barriopedro, D., E.M. Fischer, J. Luterbacher, R.M. Trigo, R. García-Herrera (2011), The hot summer of 2010: Redrawing the temperature record map of Europe, Science 332, 6026, 220-224, DOI: 10.1126/science.1201224.
6 Black, E., and R. Sutton (2007), The influence of oceanic conditions on the hot European summer of 2003, Clim. Dyn. 28, 1, 53-66, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-006-0179-8.
7 Błażejczyk, K., and G. McGregor (2007), Bio-thermal conditions and mortality in selected European agglomerations, Prz. Geogr. 79, 3-4, 627-649 (in Polish).
8 Chase, T.N., K. Wolter, R.A. Pielke Sr., and I. Rasool (2006), Was the 2003 European summer heat wave unusual in a global context?, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, 23, L23709, DOI: 10.1029/2006GL027470.
9 Coumou, D., A. Robinson, and S. Rahmstorf (2013), Global increase in recordbreaking monthly-mean temperatures, Climatic Change 118, 3-4, 771-782, DOI: 10.1007/s10584-012-0668-1. de Freitas, C.R. (2003), Tourism climatology: evaluating environmental information for decision making and business planning in the recreation and tourism sector, Int. J. Biometeorol. 48, 1, 45-54, DOI: 10.1007/s00484-003-0177-z
10 Della-Marta, P.M., J. Luterbacher, H. von Weissenfluh, E. Xoplaki, M. Brunet, and H. Wanner (2007), Summer heat waves over western Europe 1880-2003 their relationship to large-scale forcings and predictability, Clim. Dyn. 29, 2-3, 251-275, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-007-0233-1.
11 D’Ippoliti, D., P. Michelozzi, C. Marino, F. de’Donato, B. Menne, K. Katsouyanni, U. Kirchmayer, A. Analitis, M. Medina-Ramón, A. Paldy, R. Atkinson, S. Kovats, L. Bisanti, A. Schneider, A. Lefranc, C. Iñiguez, and C.A. Perucci (2010), The impact of heat waves on mortality in 9 European cities: results from the EuroHEAT project, Environ. Health 9, 37, 1-9, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069X-9-37.
12 Dole, R., M. Hoerling, J. Perlwitz, J. Eischeid, P. Pegion, T. Zhang, X.W. Quan, T. Xu, and D. Murray (2011), Was there a basis for anticipating the 2010 Russian heat wave?, Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, 6, L06702, DOI: 10.1029/ 2010GL046582.
13 Donat, M.G., L.V. Alexander, H. Yang, I. Durre, R. Vose, R.J.H. Dunn, K.M. Willett, E. Aguilar, M. Brunet, J. Caesar, B. Hewitson, C. Jack, A.M.G. Klein Tank, A.C. Kruger, J. Marengo, T.C. Peterson, M. Renom, C. Oria Rojas, M. Rusticucci, J. Salinger, A.S. Elrayah, S.S. Sekele, A.K. Srivastava, B. Trewin, C. Villarroel, L.A. Vincent, P. Zhai, X. Zhang, and S. Kitching (2013), Updated analyses of temperature and precipitation extreme indices since the beginning of the twentieth century: The HadEX2 dataset, J. Geophys. Res. 118, 5, 2098-2118, DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50150.
14 Elizbarashvili, E.Sh., R.Sh. Meskhiya, and M.E. Elizbarashvili (2007), Dynamics of occurrence frequency of extreme anomalies of monthly mean air temperature in Georgia in the 20th century and its effect on precipitation and on the river water discharge, Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol. 32, 1, 71-74, DOI: 10.3103/S1068373907010116.
15 Feudale, L., and J. Shukla (2011), Influence of sea surface temperature on the European heat wave of 2003 summer. Part I: an observational study, Clim. Dyn. 36, 9-10, 1691-1703, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0788-0.
16 Filipiuk, E., and B.M. Kaszewski (2000), Hot and cold summers in Central Europe (1871-1990), Prace Geogr. 108, 149-154.
17 Fink, A.H., T. Brücher, A. Krüger, G.C. Leckebusch, J.G. Pinto, and U. Ulbrich (2004), The 2003 European summer heatwaves and drought – synoptic diagnosis and impacts, Weather 59, 8, 209-216, DOI: 10.1256/wea.73.04.
18 Fischer, E.M., and C. Schär (2010), Consistent geographical patterns of changes in high-impact European heatwaves, Nat. Geosci. 3, 398-403, DOI: 10.1038/ ngeo866.
19 Founda, D., and C. Giannakopoulos (2009), The exceptionally hot summer of 2007 in Athens, Greece – A typical summer in the future climate?, Global Planet. Change 67, 3-4, 227-236, DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.03.013.
20 Friedrich, K., and P. Bissolli (2012), Analysis of temperatures and precipitation recorded at stations in Eastern Europe during the heat wave in summer 2010, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Business Area Climate and Environment,,templateId=raw,property=publicationFile.pdf/20110124_Hitzewelle_Russland_de.pdf.
21 Gerstengarbe, F.W., and P.C. Werner (1992), The time structure of extreme summers in Central Europe between 1901 and 1980, Meteorol. Z. 1, 6, 285-289.
22 Gruza, G.V., and E.Ya. Ran’kova (2011), Estimation of probable contribution of global warming to the genesis of abnormally hot summers in the European part of Russia, Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 47, 6, 661-664, DOI: 10.1134/ S0001433811060065.
23 Hansen, J., M. Sato, and R. Ruedy (2012), Perception of climate change, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 37, E2415-E2423, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1205276109.
24 Hodzic, A., S. Madronich, B. Bohn, S. Massie, L. Menut, and C. Wiedinmyer (2007), Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: mesoscale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 15, 4043-4064.
25 Hutter, H.P., H. Moshammer, P. Wallner, B. Leitner, and M. Kundi (2007), Heatwaves in Vienna: effects on mortality, Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 119, 7-8, 223-227, DOI: 10.1007/s00508-006-0742-7.
26 IPCC (2013), Summary for policymakers. In: T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P.M. Midgley (eds.), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I. Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 3-32.
27 Isayev, A.A., and B.G. Sherstyukov (2008), Mean and extreme characteristics of Moscow climate at the end of the 20th century, Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol. 33, 3, 151-158, DOI: 10.3103/S1068373908030035.
28 Jaagus, J. (2006), Climatic changes in Estonia during the second half of the 20th century in relationship with changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 83, 1-4, 77-88, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-005-0161-0.
29 Jones, G.S., P.A. Stott, and N. Christidis (2008), Human contribution to rapidly increasing frequency of very warm Northern Hemisphere summers, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D2, D02109, DOI: 10.1029/2007JD008914.
30 Jones, P.D., D.H. Lister, T.J. Osborn, C. Harpham, M. Salmon, and C.P. Morice (2012), Hemispheric and large-scale land-surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2010, J. Geophys. Res. 117, D5, D05127, DOI: 10.1029/2011JD017139.
31 Kamae, Y., H. Shiogama, M. Watanabe, and M. Kimoto (2014), Attributing the increase in Northern Hemisphere hot summers since the late 20th century, Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, 14, 5192-5199, DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061062.
32 Klein Tank, A.M.G., J.B. Wijngaard, G.P. Können, R. Böhm, G. Demarée, A. Gocheva, M. Mileta, S. Pashiardis, L. Hejkrlik, C. Kern-Hansen, R. Heino, P. Bessemoulin, G. Müller-Westermeier, M. Tzanakou, S. Szalai T. Pálsdóttir, D. Fitzgerald, S. Rubin, M. Capaldo, M. Maugeri, A. Leitass, A. Bukantis, R. Aberfeld, A.F.V. van Engelen, E. Forland, M. Mietus, F. Coelho, C. Mares, V. Razuvaev, E. Nieplova, T. Cegnar, J. Antonio López, B. Dahlström, A. Moberg, W. Kirchhofer, A. Ceylan, O. Pachaliuk, L.V. Alexander, and P. Petrovic (2002), Daily dataset of 20th-century surface air temperature and precipitation series for the European Climate Assessment, Int. J. Climatol. 22, 12, 1441-1453, DOI: 10.1002/joc.773.
33 Kossowska-Cezak, U. (1993), Summer 1992 in Poland against summer seasons of 120-years period, Prz. Geofiz. 38, 1, 67-74 (in Polish).
34 Kossowska-Cezak, U. (1997), Monthly thermal and precipitation conditions and their dependence on atmospheric circulation, Prace Stud. Geograf. 20, 125-144 (in Polish).
35 Kossowska-Cezak, U. (2010), Occurrence of hot weather in Warsaw (1951-2009), Prz. Geofiz. 2010, 1-2, 61-75 (in Polish).
36 Kossowska-Cezak, U., and R. Twardosz (2012a), Exceptionally hot summer months and seasons in Central and Eastern Europe (1951-2010). Part I. Exceptionally hot summer months, Prz. Geofiz. 2012, 3-4, 299-324 (in Polish).
37 Kossowska-Cezak, U., and R. Twardosz (2012b), Exceptionally hot summer months and seasons in Central and Eastern Europe (1951-2010). Part II. Exceptionally hot summer seasons, Prz. Geofiz. 2012, 3-4, 325-342 (in Polish).
38 Kossowska-Cezak, U., and R. Twardosz (2013), Exceptionally cool summers in Central and Eastern Europe (1951-2010), Prz. Geofiz. 2013, 1-2, 25-39 (in Polish).
39 Krzyżewska, A., and S. Wereski (2011), Heat waves and frost waves in selected Polish stations against bioclimatic regions background (2000-2010), Prz. Geofiz. 2011, 1-2, 99-109 (in Polish).
40 Kürbis, K., M. Mudelsee, G. Tetzlaff, and R. Brázdil (2009), Trends in extremes of temperature, dew point, and precipitation from long instrumental series from central Europe, Theor Appl. Climatol. 98, 1-2, 187-195, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-008-0094-5.
41 Kuziemska, D. (1975), Atmospheric precipitation in cool, temperate and warm months of the year in Warsaw, Temat 1.05.04, Problem 157, Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Warszawa, Poland, 1-28 (in Polish).
42 Kuziemska, D. (1987), The air temperature differentiation on Poland area and atmospheric circulation types over central Europe, Prz. Geofiz. 3, 277-287 (in Polish).
43 Kyselý, J. (2010), Recent severe heat waves in central Europe: how to view them in a long-term prospect?, Int. J. Climatol. 30, 1, 89-109, DOI: 10.1002/ joc.1874.
44 Kyselý, J., and R. Huth (2008), Relationships of surface air temperature anomalies over Europe to persistence of atmospheric circulation patterns conducive to heat waves, Adv. Geosci. 14, 243-249, DOI: 10.5194/adgeo-14-243-2008 Luterbacher, J., D. Dietrich, E. Xoplaki, M. Grosjean, and H. Wanner (2004), European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends, and extremes since 1500, Science 303, 5663, 1499-1503, DOI: 10.1126/science.1093877. Masters, J. (2010), Causes of the Russian heat wave and Pakistani floods, Dr. Jeff Master’s WunderBlog, (retrieved on 9 February 2011).
45 Meehl, G.A., and C. Tebaldi (2004), More intense, more frequent, and longer lasting heat waves in the 21st century, Science 305, 5686, 994-997, DOI: 10.1126/ science.1098704.
46 Moberg, A., P.D. Jones, D. Lister, A. Walther, M. Brunet, J. Jacobeit, L.V. Alexander, P.M. Della-Marta, J. Luterbacher, P. Yiou, D. Chen, A.M.G. Klein Tank, O. Saladié, J. Sigró, E. Aguilar, H. Alexandersson, C. Almarza, I. Auer, M. Barriendos, M. Begert, H. Bergström, R. Böhm, C. J. Butler, J. Caesar, A. Drebs, D. Founda, F.-W. Gerstengarbe, G. Micela, M. Maugeri, H. Österle, K. Pandzic, M. Petrakis, L. Srnec, R. Tolasz, H. Tuomenvirta, P.C. Werner, H. Linderholm, A. Philipp, H. Wanner, and E. Xoplaki (2006), Indices for daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe analyzed for the period 1901-2000, J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22, D22106, DOI: 10.1029/2006JD007103.
47 Muthers, S., A. Matzarakis, and E. Koch (2010), Climate change and mortality in Vienna – A human biometeorological analysis based on regional climate modeling, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, 7, 2965-2977, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7072965.
48 Perkins, S.E., L.V. Alexander, and J.R. Nairn (2012), Increasing frequency, intensity and duration of observed global heatwaves and warm spells, Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, 20, L20714, DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053361.
49 Piervitali, E., M. Conte, and M. Colacino (1997), Summer air temperature anomalies in Europe during the century 1811-1910, Nuovo Cimento C 20, 2, 195-208.
50 Rebetez, M., O. Dupont, and M. Giroud (2009), An analysis of the July 2006 heatwave extent in Europe compared to the record year of 2003, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 95, 1-2, 1-7, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-007-0370-9.
51 Révész, A. (2008), Stochastic behaviour of heat waves and temperature in Hungary, Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res. 6, 4, 85-100, DOI: 10.15666/aeer/0604_085100.
52 Revich, B.A., and D.A. Shaposhnikov (2012), Climate change, heat waves, and cold spells as risk factors for increased mortality in some regions of Russia, Stud. Rus. Econom. Develop. 23, 2, 195-207, DOI: 10.1134/ S1075700712020116.
53 Schär, C., P.L. Vidale, D. Lüthi, C. Frei, C. Häberli, M.A. Liniger, and C. Appenzeller (2004), The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves, Nature 427, 6972, 332-336, DOI: 10.1038/nature 02300.
54 Scott, D., and C. Lemieux (2010), Weather and climate information for tourism, Procedia Environ. Sci. 1, 146-183, DOI: 10.1016/j.proenv.2010.09.011 Sidorenkov, N.S., and I.A. Orlov (2008), Atmospheric circulation epochs and climate changes, Rus. Meteorol. Hydrol. 33, 9, 553-559, DOI: 10.3103/ S1068373908090021.
55 Sillmann, J., V.V. Kharin, X. Zhang, F.W. Zwiers, and D. Bronaugh (2013), Climate extremes indices in the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble: Part 1. Model evaluation in the present climate, J. Geophys. Res. 118, 4, 1716-1733, DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50203.
56 Sillmann, J., M.G. Donat, J.C. Fyfe, and F.W. Zwiers (2014), Observed and simulated temperature extremes during the recent warming hiatus, Environ. Res. Lett. 9, 6, 064023, DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/064023.
57 Stott, P.A., D.A. Stone, and M.R. Allen (2004), Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003, Nature 432, 7017, 610-614, DOI: 10.1038/nature03089.
58 Trigo, R.M., J.M. Vaquero, M.J. Alcoforado, M. Barriendos, J. Taborda, R. García- Herrera, and J. Luterbacher (2009), Iberia in 1816, the year without a summer, Int. J. Climatol. 29, 1, 99-115, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1693.
59 Twardosz, R. (2009), Extraordinary heat waves in 21st century Europe, Prz. Geofiz. 2009, 3-4, 193-204 (in Polish).
60 Twardosz, R., and A. Batko (2012), Heat waves in Central Europe (1991-2006), Int. J. Global Warm. 4, 3-4, 261-272, DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2012.049430.
61 Twardosz, R., and U. Kossowska-Cezak (2013a), Exceptionally hot summers in Central and Eastern Europe (1951-2010), Theor. Appl. Climatol. 112, 3-4, 617-628, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-012-0757-0.
62 Twardosz, R., and U. Kossowska-Cezak (2013b), Exceptionally hot summers months in Central and Eastern Europe during the years 1951-2010. In: I. Dincer, C. Ozgur Colpan, and F. Kadioglu (eds.), Causes, Impacts and Solutions to Global Warming, Springer, New York, 17-35, DOI: 10.1007/ 978-1-4614-7588-0_2.
63 Twardosz, R., and U. Kossowska-Cezak (2013c), Exceptional thermal anomalies in the Atlantic-European area of the sub-polar zone, Probl. Klimatol. Polar. 23, 93-105 (in Polish).
64 Twardosz, R., E. Łupikasza, and T. Niedźwiedź (2011), Temporal Variability in the Form and Type of Precipitation in Kraków in Relation to Circulation Patterns, Wydawnictwo UJ, Kraków, 174 pp. (in Polish).
65 Unal, Y.S., E. Tan, and S.S. Mentes (2013), Summer heat waves over western Turkey between 1965 and 2006, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 112, 1-2, 339-350, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-012-0704-0.
66 Wehry, W. (2010), Der heisse Sommer 2010 in Russland – Teil 2: Meteorologische Ursachen der Waldbrände, Beitr. Berliner Wetterkarte 52/10 (SO 24/10) (in German).
67 Wijngaard, J.B., A.M.G. Klein Tank, and G.P. Können (2003), Homogeneity of 20th century European daily temperature and precipitation series, Int. J. Climatol. 23, 6, 679-692, DOI: 10.1002/joc.906. WMO (2010), Extreme weather events, World Meteorological Organization, (retrieved on 9 February 2011).
68 Zveryaev, I., Yu. Zyulyaeva, S. Gulev, and P. Koltermann (2012), Intercomparison of the Russian summer heatwaves of 2010 and 1972. In: EGU General Assembly, 22-27 April 2012, Vienna, Austria, EGU2012-9714.
69 Zvyagintsev, A.M., O.B. Blum, A.A. Glazkova, S.N. Kotel’nikov, I.N. Kuznetsova, V.A. Lapchenko, E.A. Lezina, E.A. Miller, V.A. Milyaev, A.P. Popikov, E.G. Semutnikova, O.A. Tarasova, and I.Yu. Shalygina (2011), Air pollution over European Russia and Ukraine under the hot summer conditions of 2010, Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 47, 6, 699-707, DOI: 10.1134/ S0001433811060168
Qute : Karakostas, V. ,Papadimitriou, E. ,Mesimeri, M. ,Paradisopoulou, P. ,Gkarlaouni, Ch. ,Trojanowski, J. ,Plesiewicz, B. ,Wiszniowski, J. ,Danek, T. ,Slawinski, M. A. ,Baddari, K. ,Frolov, A. D. ,Tourtchine, V. ,Rahmoune, F. ,Makdeche, S. ,Semenov, V. Yu. ,Giorgi, L. ,Leucci, G. ,Narayan, J. P. ,Arafat, M. Y. ,Kamal ,Lizurek, G. ,Rudziński, Ł. ,Plesiewicz, B. ,Kwietniak, A. ,Singh, M. K. ,Mahato, N. K. ,Kumar, N. ,Weinerowska-Bords, K. ,Twardosz, R. ,Kossowska-Cezak, U. ,Kossowska-Cezak, U. , Exceptionally Hot and Cold Summers in Europe (1951-2010). Acta Geophysica Vol. 63, no. 1/2015