Journal : Acta Geophysica
Article : Exceptionally Hot and Cold Summers in Europe (1951-2010)

Authors :
Karakostas, V.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, vkarak@geo.auth.gr,
Papadimitriou, E.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, ritsa@geo.auth.gr,
Mesimeri, M.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, mmesimer@geo.auth.gr,
Paradisopoulou, P.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, ppara@geo.auth.gr,
Gkarlaouni, Ch.
Geophysics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, hagarl@geo.auth.gr,
Trojanowski, J.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland, jtroj@igf.edu.pl,
Plesiewicz, B.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,
Wiszniowski, J.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,
Danek, T.
Department of Earth Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Canad,
Slawinski, M. A.
Department of Geoinformatics and Applied Computer Science, AGH – University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland,
Baddari, K.
Laboratory of Physics of the Earth UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria / University of Bouira, Bouira, Algeria / Laboratory LIMOSE UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria,
Frolov, A. D.
Geophysical Division NCG, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia,
Tourtchine, V.
Laboratory LIMOSE UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria,
Rahmoune, F.
Laboratory LIMOSE UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria,
Makdeche, S.
Laboratory LIMOSE UMBB, Boumerdes, Algeria,
Semenov, V. Yu.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland, sem@igf.edu.pl,
Giorgi, L.
IBAM – National Council of Research, Lecce, Italy,
Leucci, G.
IBAM – National Council of Research, Lecce, Italy,
Narayan, J. P.
Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India,
Arafat, M. Y.
Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India,
Kamal
Department of Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India,
Lizurek, G.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland, lizurek@igf.edu.pl,
Rudziński, Ł.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,
Plesiewicz, B.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland,
Kwietniak, A.
Academy of Science and Technology AGH, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Kraków, Poland, kwietnia@agh.edu.pl,
Singh, M. K.
Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India, drmks29@rediffmail.com,
Mahato, N. K.
Department of Mathematics, C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, India, kr.nav81@gmail.com,
Kumar, N.
Department of Mathematics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, nks_1953@yahoo.co.in,
Weinerowska-Bords, K.
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland, kwein@pg.gda.pl,
Twardosz, R.
Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland, r.twardosz@uj.edu.pl,
Kossowska-Cezak, U.
Department of Climatology, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland,
Abstract : The paper explores exceptional thermal conditions, an area of research that has increased in significance in the context of the changes that are being observed in climate. Specifically, the study addressed the frequency, long-term change and spatial coverage of exceptionally hot summers, and exceptionally cool summers (EHS and ECS) in Europe. The statistical criterion of plus/minus two standard deviations from the long-term average was used to identify EHS and ECS at 60 weather stations over the period 1951-2010. The study has demonstrated that EHS are characterised by greater temperature anomalies than ECS and are approximately twice as frequent. They occurred virtually everywhere within the study area, whilst ECS are concentrated in its northern part. Five EHS (1972, 2002, 2003, 2007, and 2010) and three ECS (1956, 1962, and 1976) were large enough to be recorded by at least 10% of the stations.

Keywords : cool summers, hot summers, temperature anomaly, Europe,
Publishing house : Instytut Geofizyki PAN
Publication date : 2015
Number : Vol. 63, no. 1
Page : 275– – 300

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DOI :
Qute : Karakostas, V. ,Papadimitriou, E. ,Mesimeri, M. ,Paradisopoulou, P. ,Gkarlaouni, Ch. ,Trojanowski, J. ,Plesiewicz, B. ,Wiszniowski, J. ,Danek, T. ,Slawinski, M. A. ,Baddari, K. ,Frolov, A. D. ,Tourtchine, V. ,Rahmoune, F. ,Makdeche, S. ,Semenov, V. Yu. ,Giorgi, L. ,Leucci, G. ,Narayan, J. P. ,Arafat, M. Y. ,Kamal ,Lizurek, G. ,Rudziński, Ł. ,Plesiewicz, B. ,Kwietniak, A. ,Singh, M. K. ,Mahato, N. K. ,Kumar, N. ,Weinerowska-Bords, K. ,Twardosz, R. ,Kossowska-Cezak, U. ,Kossowska-Cezak, U. , Exceptionally Hot and Cold Summers in Europe (1951-2010). Acta Geophysica Vol. 63, no. 1/2015
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