Geochemical and stable isotope patterns of calcite cementation in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk, UK: Direct evidence from calcite-filled vugs in brachiopods

Czasopismo : Acta Geologica Polonica
Tytuł artykułu : Geochemical and stable isotope patterns of calcite cementation in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk, UK: Direct evidence from calcite-filled vugs in brachiopods

Autorzy :
Hu, X.
Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China,
Abstrakty : The history of research into the cementation of the Upper Cretaceous Chalk of the UK is reviewed. Calcite-filled vugs within the shell cavities of terebratulid brachiopods from the Cenomanian Chalk of eastern england have been investigated by cathodoluminesence imaging, staining, electron microprobe and stable isotope analysis. This has provided the first detailed analysis of the geochemistry of the Chalk.s cement. two cement series, suboxic and anoxic, are recognized. Both start with a Mg-rich calcite with positive [delta^13]C values considered to have been precipitated under oxic conditions influenced by aerobic ammonification. The suboxic series is characterized by positive [delta^13]C values that became increasingly so as cementation progressed, reaching values of 3.5[per mil]. Manganese is the dominant trace element in the earlier cement, iron in the later cement. Mn-and Fe-reducing microbes influenced cement precipitation and the trace element and [delta^13]C patterns. The anoxic series is characterized by [delta^13]C values that became increasingly negative as cementation progressed, reaching values of .6.5[per mil]. Trace elements are dominated by iron and manganese. Sulphate-reducing microbes influenced cement precipitation and the trace element and [delta^13]C patterns. Both cement series are related closely to lithofacies and early lithification pre-dating the regional hardening of the Chalk. The suboxic series occurs in chalk which was continuously deposited and contained hematite pigment and limited organic matter. The anoxic series was associated with slow to nil deposition and hardground development inc halks that originally contained hematite pigment but no longer do so, and an enhanced supply of organic matter.

Słowa kluczowe : cement kalcytowy, diageneza, historia, izotopy stabilne, kreda, pierwiastki śladowe, wpływ drobnoustrojów, anoxia, Calcite cement, Chalk, Diagenesis, history, Microbial influence, oxia, stable isotopes, suboxia, trace elements,
Wydawnictwo : Faculty of Geology of the University of Warsaw
Rocznik : 2012
Numer : Vol. 62, no. 2
Strony : 143 – 172
Bibliografia : 1. Bower, C.R. and Farmery, J.T. 1910. The zones of the Lower Chalk of Lincolnshire. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 11, 333–359.
2. Brasher, J.E. and Vagle, K.R. 1996. Influence of lithofacies and diagenesis on Norwegian North Sea chalk reservoirs. AAPG Bulletin, 80, 746–769.
3. Bray, R.J., Green, P.F. and Duddy, I.R. 1992. Thermal history reconstruction using apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance: a case study from the UK East Midlands and Southern North Sea. In: R.F.P. Hardman (Ed.) Exploration Britain: Geological insights for the next decade. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 67, 3–25.
4. Bromley, R.G. 1967. Some observations on burrows of Thalasinidian Crustacea in chalk hardgrounds. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, 123, 157–182.
5. Bromley, R.G. 1968. Burrows and borings in hardgrounds. Meddelelser fra Dansk Geologisk Forening, 18, 247–250.
6. Bromley, R.G., Schulz, M.G. and Peake, N.B. 1975. Paramoudras: giant flints, long burrows and the early diagenesis of chalks. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Skrifter, 20, 1–31.
7. Clayton, C.J. 1986. The chemical environment of flint formation in Upper Cretaceous chalks. In: G. de G. Sieveking and M.B. Hart (Eds), The scientific study of flint and chert, 43–54. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
8. Craig, H. 1965. The measurement of oxygen isotope palaeotemperature. In: E. Tongiorgi (Ed.), Stable isotopes in oceanographic studies and palaeotemperatures, 3–24. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.
9. Dickson, J.A.D. 1965. A modified staining technique for carbonates in thin section. Nature, 205, 587.
10. Dickson, J.A.D. 1966. Carbonate identification and genesis as revealed by staining. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 36, 491–505.
11. Downing, R.A., Allen, D.J., Bird, M.J., Gale, I.N., Kay, R.L.F. and Smith, I.F. 1985. Cleethorpes No.1 Geothermal Well—a preliminary assessment of the resource. Investigation of the Geothermal Potential of the UK, British Geological Survey.
12. Egeberg, P.K. and Saigal, G.C. 1991. North Sea chalk diagenesis: cementation of chalks and healing of fractures. Chemical Geology, 92, 339 –354.
13. Green, P.F. 1989. Thermal and tectonic history of the East Midlands shelf (onshore UK) and the surrounding regions assessed by apatite fission track analysis. Journal of the Geological Society (London), 146, 755– 773.
14. Hancock, J.M. 1963. The hardness of the Irish Chalk. The Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 14, 157–164.
15. Hancock, J.M. 1975. The petrology of the Chalk. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 86, 499–535.
16. Hardman, R.F.P. 1982. Chalk reservoirs of the North Sea. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, 30, 119–137
17. Holliday, D.W. 1999. Palaeotemperatures, thermal modeling and depth studies in northern and eastern England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 52, 337–352.
18. Hopson, P.M. 2005. A stratigraphical framework for the Upper Cretaceous of England & Scotland with statements on the Chalk of Northern Ireland and the UK Offshore Sector RR/05/01. British Geological Survey.
19. Hopson, P.M., Wilkinson, I.P. and Woods, M.A. 2008. A stratigraphical framework for the Lower Cretaceous of England. British Geological Survey.
20. Hu, X-f, Long, D. and Jeans, C.V. accepted. A novel approach to the study of the development of the Chalk’s smectite assemblage. Clay Minerals.
21. Jeans, C.V. 1980. Early submarine lithification in the Red Chalk and Lower Chalk of Eastern England: a bacterial control model and its implications. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 43, 81–157.
22. Jeans, C.V., Long, D., Hall, M.A., Bland, D.J. and Cornford, C. 1991. The geochemistry of the Plenus Marls at Dover, England: evidence of fluctuating oceanographic conditions and of glacial control during the development of the Cenomanian–Turonian δ13C anomaly. Geological Magazine, 128, 603–632.
23. Jeans, C.V., Hu, X-F, and Mortimore, R.N. 2012. Calcite cements and the stratigraphical significance of the marine δ13C carbonate reference curve for the Upper Cretaceous Chalk of England. Acta Geologica Polonica, 62 (2), 173–196. this issue
24. Jensenius, J. 1987. High-temperature diagenesis in shallow chalk reservoir, Skjolb oilfield, Danish North Sea: evidence from fluid inclusions and oxygen isotopes. AAPG Bulletin, 71, 1378–1386.
25. Jensenius, J., Buchardt, B., Jørgensen, N.O. and Pedersen, S. 1988. Carbon and oxygen isotopic studies of the chalk reservoir in the Skjolb oilfield, Danish North Sea: implications for diagenesis. Chemical Geology, 73, 97–107.
26. Jensenius, J. and Munksgaard, N.C. 1989. Large scale hot water migration systems around salt diapirs in the Danish Central trough and their impact on diagenesis in chalk reservoirs. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 79 –88.
27. Jørgensen, N.O. 1987. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of Upper Cretaceous chalk from the Danish subbasin and the North sea Central Graben. Sedimentology, 34, 559–570.
28. Jukes-Browne, A.J. and Hill, W. 1903. The Cretaceous rocks of Britain, Vol. II – the Lower and Middle Chalk of England. Memoir of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, London. HMso, 568 pp.
29. Jukes-Browne, A.J. and Hill, W. 1904. The Cretaceous rocks of Britain, Vol. III – the Upper Chalk of England. Memoir of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, London. HMSO, 566 pp.
30. Kirby, G.A., Penn, I.E. and Smith, I.F. 1985. Cleethorpes No.1 Geothermal Well: geological well completion report. investigation of the Geothermal Potential of the UK. British Geological survey.
31. Lamplugh, G.W. 1895. Notes on the White Chalk of Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 13, 65–87
32. Maliva, R.G. and Dickson, J.A.D. 1992. Microfacies and diagenetic controls of porosity in Cretaceous/Tertiary chalks, Eldfisk Field, Norwegian North Sea. AAPG Bulletin, 76, 1825–1838.
33. Maliva, R.G. and Dickson, J.A.D. 1994. Origin and environment of formation of late diagenetic dolomite in Cretaceous/Tertiary chalk, North Sea Central Graben. Geological Magazine, 131, 609–617.
34. Maliva, R.G. and Dickson, J.A.D. 1997. Ulster White Limestone Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Northern Ireland: effects of basalt loading on chalk diagenesis. Sedimentology, 44, 105–112.
35. Maliva, R.G., Dickson, J.A.D. and Fallick, A.E. 1999. Kaolin cements in limestones; potential indicators of organic-rich pore waters during diagenesis. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 69, 158–163.
36. Maliva, R.G., Dickson, J.A.D., Smalley, P.C. and Oxtoby, N.H. 1995. Diagenesis of the Machar Field (British North Sea) chalk; evidence for decoupling of diagenesis in fractures and the host rock. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 65, 105–111.
37. Mimran, Y. 1975. Fabric deformation induced in Cretaceous chalks by tectonic stress. Tectonophysics, 26, 309–316.
38. Mimran, Y. 1977. Chalk deformation and large-scale migration of calcium carbonate. Sedimentology, 24, 333–360.
39. Mimran, Y. 1978. The induration of Upper Cretaceous Yorkshire and Irish chalks. Sedimentary Geology, 20, 141–164.
40. Mitchell, S.F. 1995. Lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Hunstanton Formation (Red Chalk, Cretaceous) succession at Speeton, North Yorkshire, England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 50, 285–303.
41. Mitchell, S.F. 1996. Foraminiferal assemblages from the late Lower and Middle Cenomanian of Speeton (North Yorkshire, UK): relationships with sea-level fluctuations and watermass distribution. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 15, 37–54.
42. Mortimore, R.N. 2012. Making sense of Chalk: a total rock approach to its Engineering Geology. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrology, 45, xxx-xxx.
43. Oakman, C.D. and Partington, M.A. 1998. Cretaceous. In: K.W. Glennie (Ed.), Petroleum geology of the North Sea: basic concepts and recent advances, 294–349. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
44. Phillips, J. 1829. Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire: Part 1.—the Yorkshire Coast. 1–192. York
45. Plante, A.E. 2007. Soil biogeochemical cycling of inorganic nutrients and metals. In: E.A. Paul (Ed.), Soil microbiology, Ecology and Biochemistry, pp. 389–432. Academic Press.
46. Rudwick, M.J.S. 1970. Living and Fossil Brachiopods, 1–199 pp. Hutchinson University Library; London.
47. Sahni, M.R. 1929. A monograph of the Terebratulidae of the British Chalk. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society London, 1–62.
48. Scholle, P.A. 1974. Diagenesis of Upper Cretaceous chalks from England, Northern Ireland, and the North Sea. Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, 1, 177–210.
49. Starmer, I.C. 1995. Deformation of the Upper Cretaceous Chalk at Selwicks Bay, flamborough Head, Yorkshire: its significance in the structural evolution of north-east England and the North Sea Basin. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 50, 213–228.
50. Taylor, S.R. and Lapré, J.F. 1987. North Sea chalk diagenesis: its effect on reservoir location and properties. In: K. Brooks and K.W. Glennie (Eds), Petroleum Geology of North West Europe, 483–495. Graham and Trotman; London.
51. Walters, L.M., Bischof, S.A., Patterson, W.P. and Lyons, T.W. 1993. Dissolution and recrystallization in modern shelf carbonates: evidence from pore water and solid phase chemistry. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 344, 27–36
52. Walters, L.M., Ku, T.C.W., Muehlenbachs, K., Patterson, W.P. and Bonnell, L. 2007, Controls on the d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in marine pore waters Deep-Sea Research II, 54, 1163–1200.
53. Watts, N.L. 1983. Microfractures in chalks of Albuskjell Field, Norwegian Sector, North Sea: possible origin and distribution. American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 67, 201–234
54. Wolfe, M.J. 1968. Lithification of a carbonate mud: Senonian chalk in Northern Ireland. Sedimentary Geology, 2, 263–290.
55. Wood, C.J., Batten, D.J., Mortimore, R.N. and Wray, D.S. 1997. The stratigraphy and correlation of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval succession in Lincolnshire, eastern England. Freiberger Forschungshefte, C468, 333–346.
56. Wright, C.W. 1935. The Chalk Rock Fauna in East Yorkshire. Geological Magazine, 72, 441–442.
Cytuj : Hu, X. , Geochemical and stable isotope patterns of calcite cementation in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk, UK: Direct evidence from calcite-filled vugs in brachiopods. Acta Geologica Polonica Vol. 62, no. 2/2012