Journal : Acta Geologica Polonica
Article : Palygorskite in Miocene rocks of northern Iraq: environmental and geochemical indicators

Authors :
Grabowski, J.
Polish Geological Institute, Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warszawa, Poland, jgra@pgi.gov.pl,
Boncheva, I.
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria, mcgoncu@metu.edu.tr,
Hairapetian, V.
Department of Geology, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan branch, P.O.Box 81595-158, Esfahan, Iran, vachik@khuisf.ac.ir,
Bressan, G.
Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, Buenos Aires C1428 EHA, Argentina, gbressan@gl.fcen.uba.ar,
Gierliński, G.
Polish Geological Institute, ul. Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warszawa, Poland ; Jura Park, ul. Sandomierska 4, 27-400 Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Poland, gierlinski@yahoo.com,
Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, M.
Institute of Geology, University of Warsaw, Al. Żwirki i Wigury 93, PL-02-089 Warszawa, Poland ; Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, PL-00-818 Warszawa, Poland, mbienk@twarda.pan.pl,
Topak, Y.
Mugla University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, Kotekli, 48000, Mugla, Turkey, ytopak@mail.cu.edu.tr,
Anistratenko, V.
I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of NAS Ukraine, B. Khmelnitsky Str., 15, 01601, Kiev, Ukraine ; Institute of Geological Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences, Geological Museum, Senacka Str., 1, 32-002, Kraków, Poland, anistrat@izan.kiev.ua,
Al-Juboury, A.
Research Center for Dams and Water Resources, Mosul University, Iraq, alialjubory@yahoo.com,
Abstract : The mineralogical characteristics of palygorskite from the Lower Miocene Euphrates Formation and the Middle Miocene Fat.ha (Lower Fars) succession in north and northwestern Iraq were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDAX analysis. Palygorskite is the common clay mineral in the rocks studied, together with small amounts of illite, chlorite, and kaolinite, in addition to various amounts of quartz, feldspar, dolomite and calcite. It is believed that most of the clay minerals are detrital in origin, except palygorskite, which is formed by authigenesis in evaporitic environments. Marl beds of the Euphrates Formation were deposited in a lagoonal, relatively saline environment, suitable for the neoformation of palygorskite. The Fat.ha Formation is composed mainly of an evaporitic sequence. It consists of numerous shallowing-upward cycles of alternating mudrock, limestone, gypsum and/or anhydrite and halite in the basin centre. This depositional environment favours the authigenic formation of palygorskite and partly its diagenetic formation by transformation of precursor clays, mainly smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite, as revealed by scanning electron microphotographs.

Keywords : Irak, Mioce, pałygorskit, Authigenesis, Iraq, Miocene, Palygorskite,
Publishing house : Faculty of Geology of the University of Warsaw
Publication date : 2009
Number : Vol. 59, no. 2
Page : 269 – 282

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DOI :
Qute : Grabowski, J. ,Boncheva, I. ,Hairapetian, V. ,Bressan, G. ,Gierliński, G. ,Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, M. ,Topak, Y. ,Anistratenko, V. ,Al-Juboury, A. ,Al-Juboury, A. , Palygorskite in Miocene rocks of northern Iraq: environmental and geochemical indicators. Acta Geologica Polonica Vol. 59, no. 2/2009
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