Article : Palygorskite in Miocene rocks of northern Iraq: environmental and geochemical indicators
Authors : Grabowski, J.Polish Geological Institute, Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warszawa, Poland, firstname.lastname@example.org, Boncheva, I.Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria, email@example.com, Hairapetian, V.Department of Geology, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan branch, P.O.Box 81595-158, Esfahan, Iran, firstname.lastname@example.org, Bressan, G.Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, Buenos Aires C1428 EHA, Argentina, email@example.com, Gierliński, G.Polish Geological Institute, ul. Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warszawa, Poland ; Jura Park, ul. Sandomierska 4, 27-400 Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Poland, firstname.lastname@example.org, Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, M.Institute of Geology, University of Warsaw, Al. Żwirki i Wigury 93, PL-02-089 Warszawa, Poland ; Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, PL-00-818 Warszawa, Poland, email@example.com, Topak, Y.Mugla University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, Kotekli, 48000, Mugla, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org, Anistratenko, V.I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of NAS Ukraine, B. Khmelnitsky Str., 15, 01601, Kiev, Ukraine ; Institute of Geological Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences, Geological Museum, Senacka Str., 1, 32-002, Kraków, Poland, email@example.com, Al-Juboury, A.Research Center for Dams and Water Resources, Mosul University, Iraq, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Abstract : The mineralogical characteristics of palygorskite from the Lower Miocene Euphrates Formation and the Middle Miocene Fat.ha (Lower Fars) succession in north and northwestern Iraq were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDAX analysis. Palygorskite is the common clay mineral in the rocks studied, together with small amounts of illite, chlorite, and kaolinite, in addition to various amounts of quartz, feldspar, dolomite and calcite. It is believed that most of the clay minerals are detrital in origin, except palygorskite, which is formed by authigenesis in evaporitic environments. Marl beds of the Euphrates Formation were deposited in a lagoonal, relatively saline environment, suitable for the neoformation of palygorskite. The Fat.ha Formation is composed mainly of an evaporitic sequence. It consists of numerous shallowing-upward cycles of alternating mudrock, limestone, gypsum and/or anhydrite and halite in the basin centre. This depositional environment favours the authigenic formation of palygorskite and partly its diagenetic formation by transformation of precursor clays, mainly smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite, as revealed by scanning electron microphotographs.
Publishing house : Faculty of Geology of the University of Warsaw
Publication date : 2009
Number : Vol. 59, no. 2
Page : 269 – 282
Bibliography : Al-Ajeel, A.A., Hana, S.I., Al-Bassam, Kh.S. and Hussain, M. 2000. The use of Iraqi palygorskite- rich clays in decolorizing sun-flower oil. In: Kh.S. Al-Bassam (Ed.), The Iraqi palygorskite, geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, genesis and industrial uses, The State company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad, Iraq, 203–210.
Al-Baidari, A.P. 2000. The use of Iraqi palygorskite- rich claystone from the Najaf-Razzaza area in pottery. In: Kh.S. Al-Bassam (Ed.), the Iraqi palygorskite, geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, genesis and industrial uses. The State Company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad, Iraq, 225–231.
Al-Banna, G.E. 1977. Geochemistry and origin of palygorskite deposits and associated rocks in Jabal Maqlub area, North Iraq. pp. 1–173, M.Sc. thesis; Mosul University, Iraq.
Al-Bassam, Kh.S. 2000. Distribution of Iraqi palygorskite in space and time. In: Kh. S. Al-Bassam, (Ed.), The Iraqi palygorskite, geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, genesis and industrial uses. The State Company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad, Iraq, 1–9.
Al-Bassam, Kh.S., Jafar, M.R. and Al-Ajeel, A. 2000. The use of Iraqi palygorskite in the dehydration of hydraulic oil in electrical power stations. In: Kh. S. Al-Bassam, (Ed.), The Iraqi palygorskite, geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, genesis and industrial uses, The State Company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad, Iraq, 197–202.
Al-Juboury, A.I. 1994. Petrology and provenance of the Upper Fars Formation (Upper Miocene), Northern Iraq. Acta Geol. Univ. Comenianae, Bratislava, 50, 45–53.
Al-Juboury, A.I. and Kassim, S.A. 1999. Clay mineralogy of the marl beds of Anah-Euphrates Formations, West Butmah, Mosul, Northern Iraq. Rafidian Journal of Science, Mosul University, 10, 76–82.
Al-Juboury, A.I., Al-Naqib, S.Q. and Al-Juboury, A.M. 2001. Sedimentology, mineralogy and depositional environments of the clastic units, Fatha Formation, (Middle Miocene), south of Mosul, Iraq. Dirasat, Pure Sciences, Jordan, 28, 80–105.
Al-Naqib, S.Q. and Aghwan, T.A. 1993. Sedimentological study of the clastic units of the Lower Fars Formation. Iraqi Geological Journal, 26, 108–121.
Al-Radwany, M.T., Hanna, R.K. and Al-Mola, R.R.A. 1993. Biostratigraphy and microfacies of outcrop section in southwest part of East Butmah anticline, Iraqi Geological Journal, 26, 27–45.
Al-Rawi, Y. 1980. Petrology and sedimentology of the Gercus red beds Formation (Eocene), Northeastern Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Science, 21, 132–188
Al-Rawi, A.H., Jackson, M.I. and Hole, F.D. 1969. Mineralogy of some arid and semi arid soils of Iraq. Soil Science, 107, 480–486.
Al-Sawaf, F.D. 1977. Sulfate reduction and sulfur deposition in the Lower Fars Formation, Northern Iraq. Economic Geology, 72, 608–618.
Anton, R.S., Al-Bassam, Kh.S., Al-Dulaimi, Sh.N. and Mousa, H.A. 2000. The use of Iraqi palygorskite (attapulgite) in oil-well drilling. In: Kh. S. Al-Bassam (Ed.), The Iraqi palygorskite, geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, genesis and industrial uses. The State company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad, Iraq, 179–190.
Aqrawi, A.M.M. 1993. Palygorskite in the recent fluvio-lacustrine and deltaic sediments of southern Mesopotamia. Clay Minerals, 28, 153–159.
Aswad, Kh.J., Fathiy, D.A. and Thabit, K.M. 2000. Crystallochemical and thermodynamic characterization of Nineva palygorskite as microporous absorbent. In: Kh. S. Al-Bassam (Ed.), The Iraqi palygorskite, geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, genesis and industrial uses, The State Company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad, Iraq, 211–223.
Bahroudi, A. and Koyi, H.A. 2004. Tectono-sedimentary framework of the Gachsaran Formation in the Zagros foreland basin. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 21, 1295–1310.
Bellen, R.C., Dunnington, H.V., Wetzel, R. and Morton, D. 1959. Lexique Stratigraphique International, pp. 1–333, Asie, Fasc 10a, Iraq, Paris.
Beydoun, Z.R. 1991. Arabian plate hydrocarbon, geology and potential: A plate tectonic approach, AAPG Studies in Geology, 33, 1–77.
Beydoun, Z.R., Hughes Clarke, M.W. and Stoneley, R. 1992. Petroleum in the Zagros Basin: A Late Tertiary foreland basin overprinted onto the outer edge of a vast hydrocarbon-rich Paleozoic-Mesozoic passive margin shelf. In: R.W. Macqueen and D.A. Leckie (Eds), Foreland basins and fold belts. AAPG Memoir, 55, 309–329.
Bolle, M.-P. and Adatte, T. 2001. Palaeocene-early Eocene climatic evolution in the Tethyan realm: clay mineral evidence. Clay Minerals, 36, 249–261.
Bolle, M.-P., Pardo, A., Hinrichs, K.-U., Adatte, T., Von Salis, K., Burn, S., Keller, G. and Muzylev, N. 2000a. The Paleocene-Eocene transition in the marginal northeastern Tethys (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). International Journal of Earth Sciences, 89, 390–414.
Bolle, M.-P., Pardo, A., Adatte, t., Von Salis, K. and Burn, S. 2000b. Climatic evolution on the southeastern margin of the Tethys (Negev, Israel) fro the Palaeocene to the early Eocene: focus on the late Palaeocene thermal maximum. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 157, 929–941.
Bradley, W.E. 1940. The structural scheme of attapulgite. American Mineralogists, 25, 405–411.
Brindley, G.W. and Brown, G. 1980. Crystal structures of clay minerals and their x-ray identification. pp. 1–495. Mineralogical Society; London.
Buday, T, 1980. The Regional Geology of Iraq. Stratigraphy and palaeogeography. pp. 1–445. State Organization for Mineral; Baghdad, Iraq.
Buday, T. and Jassim, S.Z. 1987. The regional geology of Iraq, tectonism, magmatism and metamorphism. pp. 1–352. Publication of the Geological Survey of Iraq.
Callen, R.A. 1984. Clays of the palygorskite-sepiolite group: depositional environment, age and distribution. In: A. Singer and E. Galan (Eds), Palygorskite-sepiolite, occurrences, genesis and uses. Developments in Sedimentology, 37, 1–37. Elsevier.
Carroll, D. 1970. Clay minerals, a guide to their x-ray identification. Geological Society of America, Special Paper, 126, 1–80.
Chamley, H. 1989. Clay sedimentology, pp. 1–623, Springer-Verlag; Berlin.
Chamley, H. and Müller, D.W. 1991. Clay mineralogy in south-east Spain during the late Miocene: climatic, paleooceanographic and tectonic events in the Eastern Betic Seaway, Geologie en Mijnbouw, 70, 1–19.
Chamley, H., Dunoyer De Segonzac, G. and Melieres, F. 1978. Clay minerals in Messinian sediments of the Mediterranean sea. In: K.J. Hsu, L. Montadert et al (Eds), Init, Rep. Deep Sea Drill, Project, (part1), U.S. Govt. Printer, Washington, 42, 389–395.
Dunnington, H.V. 1958. Generation, accumulation and dissipation of oil in Northern Iraq. In: L.G. Weeks, (Ed), Habitat of Oil, AAPG, 1194–1251.
El-Anbaawy, M.I.H. and Sadek, A. 1979. Paleoecology of the Shiranish Formation (Maastrichtian) in northern Iraq by means of microfacies analysis and clay mineral investigation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 26, 173–180.
El-Gabaly, M.M. 1962. The presence of attapulgite in some soils of the western desert of Egypt. Soil Science, 93, 387–390.
Farmer, V.C. 1974. The Infrared spectra of minerals. 527 pp. Mineralogical Society; London.
Gadsden, J.A. 1975. Infrared spectra of minerals and related inorganic compounds. pp. 1–277, Butterworths; London.
Galan, E. and Carretero, I.. 1999. A new approach to compositional limits for sepiolite and palygorskite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 47, 399–409.
Geological Map of Iraq 1986. Series scale 1:1 000000. Directorate General of Geological survey and Mineral Investigation; Baghdad, Iraq.
Grim, R.E. 1953. Clay mineralogy, 569 pp. Mc Graw-Hill; New York.
Grim, R.E. 1962. Applied clay mineralogy. International Series in Earth Sciences. Mc Graw-Hill; New York.
Hayashi, H., Otsuka, R. and Imai, N. 1969. Infrared study of sepiolite and palygorskite on heating. American Mineralogists, 54, 1613–1624.
Hirst, K.S. 1962. The geochemistry of modern sediments from the Gulf of Paria. II. The location and distribution of trace elements. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 26, 1147–1187.
Jassim, S.Z., Jibril, A.S. and Numan, N.M.S. 1997. Gypsum Karstification in the Middle Miocene Fatha Formation, Mosul area, northern Iraq. Geomorphology, 18, 137-–.
Jassim, S.Z., Raiswell, R. and Bottrell, S.H. 1999. Genesis of Middle Miocene stratabound sulphur deposits of northern Iraq. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 156, 25–39.
Juma, N.H., Al-Bassam, Kh.S., Dawood, A.N., Nouri, I., Matti, N. and Rasheed, S.Ch. 2000. The use of Iraqi palygorskite (attapulgite) in decolorizing paraffin wax. In: Kh. S. Al-Bassam, (Ed.), The Iraqi palygorskite, geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, genesis and industrial uses. The State Company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad, Iraq, 191–195.
Kas-Yonan, S.A. 1989. Mineralogy, geochemistry and properties of palygorskite and associated rocks and clays of Safra member, Late Maastrichtian in Ga’ara, Akashat area, pp. 1–167, M.Sc. thesis; Mosul University.
Khademi, H. and Mermut, A.R. 1999. Submicroscopy and stable isotope geochemistry of carbonates and associated palygorskite in Iranian aridisols. European Journal of Soil Science, 50, 207–216.
Loosveld, R.J.H., Bell, A. and Terken, J.J.M. 1996. The tectonic evolution of interior Oman, GeoArabia, 1, 28–51.
Mason, B. 1966. Principles of geochemistry, 329 pp. John Wiley and Sons.
Millot, G. 1970. Geology of clays, 429 pp. Chapman and Hall; London.
Moore, D. and Reynolds, R. 1989. X-ray diffraction and the identification and analysis of clay minerals, 332 pp. Oxford University Press; Oxford.
Murray, H. 2002. Industrial clays case study. Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) publication, International Institute for Environment and Development, 64, 9 pp.
Nemecz, E. 1981. Clay minerals, 547 pp. Academia Kiado; Budapest.
Numan, N.M.S. 1984. Basement controls of stratigraphic sequences and structural patterns in Iraq. Journal of the Geological Society of Iraq, 16, 8–24
Numan, N.M.S. 1997. A plate tectonic scenario for the Phanerozoic succession in Iraq. Iraqi Geological Journal, 30, 85–110.
Numan, N.M.S. and Bakose, G.Y.B. 1997. Lineaments: questions on the veracity of their relationships in the western and southern deserts of Iraq. ITC Journal, 1, 41–48.
Ostrom, M.E. 1961. Separation of clay minerals from carbonate rocks by using acid. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 31, 123–129.
Perez-Rodriguez, JL., Maqueda, C. and Morillo, E. 1990. Occurrence of palygorskite in soils of Ecija (Spain). Australian Journal of Soil Sciences, 28, 117–128.
Pletsch, T. 2003. Authigenic palygorskite clay in deep-sea sediments-mineral deposits formed in ancient greenhouse oceans? Z. Angew. Geol. 2, 22–29.
Russell, J.D. and Fraser, A.R. 1994. Infrared methods. In: M.J. Wilson (Ed), Clay mineralogy: spectroscopical chemical determination methods, pp. 11–67. Chapman and Hall; London.
Serna, C.J., Van Scoyac, G,E. and Ahlrich, J.L. 1977. Hydroxyl groups and water in palygorskite. American Mineralogists, 62, 784–792.
Shawkat, M.G. and Tucker, M.E. 1978. Stromatolites and sahkha cycles from the Lower Fars Formation (Miocene) of Iraq. Geologische Rundschau, 67, 1–14.
Singer, A. 1980. The paleoclimatic interpretation of clay minerals in soil and weathering profiles. Earth Science Review, 15, 303–326.
Singer, A. and Galan, E. 1984. Palygorskite-sepiolite: occurrences, genesis and uses, Developments in Sedimentology, 37, 1–352. Elsevier; Amsterdam.
Soong, R. 1992. Palygorskite occurrences in northwest Nelson, South Island, New Zealand, Geol. Geoph. New Zealand, 35, 325–330.
Stahr, K., Kühn, J., Trommler, J., Papenfuß, K-H., Zarei, M. and Singer, A. 2000. Palygorskite-cemented crusts (palycretes), southern Portugal. Australian Journal of Soil Sciences, 38, 169–188.
Tamar Agha, M.Y. and Al-Janabi, S.A.F. 2000. Palygorskite in the Tayarat Formation (Upper Cretaceous), well KH-6 at Al-Ansab, southern desert of Iraq. In: Kh. S. Al-Bassam (Ed.), The Iraqi palygorskite, geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, genesis and industrial uses. The State Company of Geological Survey and Mining, Baghdad, Iraq, 11–34.
Thorez, J. 1979. Practical identification of clay minerals. pp. 1–89. Lelotte; Belgium.
Tucker, M. 1999. Sabkha cycles, stacking patterns and controls: Gachsaran (Lower Fars/Fat’ha) Formation, Miocene, Mesopotamian Basin, Iraq. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, 214, 45–69.
Türkmen, I. and Bölücek, C. 1998. The origin of clay minerals in salina playa- mudflat facies, Yeniçubuk Formation (lower-middle Miocene), Gemerek, Sivac, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 7, 1–10.
Van Der Heuvel, R.C. 1966. The occurrence of sepiolite and attapulgite in the calcareous zone of soil near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Clays Clay Mineral, 13, 193–207.
Weaver, C.E. and Beck, K. 1977. Miocene of the S.E. United States: A model for chemical sedimentation in a peri-marine environment. Sedimentary Geology, 17, 1–234.
Qute : Grabowski, J. ,Boncheva, I. ,Hairapetian, V. ,Bressan, G. ,Gierliński, G. ,Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, M. ,Topak, Y. ,Anistratenko, V. ,Al-Juboury, A. ,Al-Juboury, A. , Palygorskite in Miocene rocks of northern Iraq: environmental and geochemical indicators. Acta Geologica Polonica Vol. 59, no. 2/2009