Regional hardening of Upper Cretaceous Chalk in eastern England, UK: trace element and stable isotope patterns in the Upper Cenomanian and Turonian Chalk and their significance

Czasopismo : Acta Geologica Polonica
Tytuł artykułu : Regional hardening of Upper Cretaceous Chalk in eastern England, UK: trace element and stable isotope patterns in the Upper Cenomanian and Turonian Chalk and their significance

Autorzy :
Trammer, J.
Institute of Geology, University of Warsaw, Al. Żwirki i Wigury 93; PL-02-089, Poland, jtrammer@uw.edu.pl,
Lajblová, K.
Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2, Czech Republic., lajblova@natur.cuni.cz,
Kraft, P.
Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2, Czech Republic, kraft@natur.cuni.cz,
Sari, B.
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, Tınaztepe Campus, 35160, Buca -İzmir, Turkey, bilal.sari@deu.edu.tr,
Kandemır, R.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, 53100 Rize, Turkey,
Özer, S.
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, Tınaztepe Campus, 35160, Buca -İzmir, Turkey.,
Walaszczyk, I.
Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, Al. Żwirki i Wigury 93, PL-02-089 Warszawa, Poland,
Görmüş, M.
Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, 06100 Tandoğan-Ankara, Turkey,
Demırcan, H.
General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Department of Geological Research, 06520 Balgat-Ankara, Turkey,
Yilmaz, C.
Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey,
Jeans, C. V.
Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EQ, UK, cj302@cam.ac.uk,
Long, D.
Willow View, 46 Litcham Road, Mileham, Norfolk, PE32 2PT, UK,
Hu, X.-F.
Editorial Office, Journal of Palaeogeography, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), 20 Xueyuan Road, P. O. Box 902, Beijing 100083, China,
Mortimore, R.
University of Brighton & Chalk Rock Ltd, 32 Prince Edwards Road, Lewes, Sussex, BN7 1BE, UK,
Abstrakty : The regional hardening of the Late Cenomanian to Early Turonian Chalk of the Northern Province of eastern England has been investigated by examining the pattern of trace elements and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the bulk calcite of two extensive and stratigraphically adjacent units each 4 to 5 m thick of hard chalk in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. These units are separated by a sequence, 0.3–1.3 m thick, of variegated marls and clayey marls. Modelling of the geochemistry of the hard chalk by comparison with the Standard Louth Chalk, combined with associated petrographic and geological evidence, indicates that (1) the hardening is due to the precipitation of a calcite cement, and (2) the regional and stratigraphical patterns of geochemical variation in the cement are largely independent of each other and have been maintained by the impermeable nature of the thin sequence of the clay-rich marls that separate them. Two phases of calcite cementation are recognised. The first phase was microbially influenced and did not lithify the chalk. It took place predominantly in oxic and suboxic conditions under considerable overpressure in which the Chalk pore fluids circulated within the units, driven by variations in compaction, temperature, pore fluid pressure and local tectonics. There is evidence in central and southern Lincolnshire of the loss of Sr and Mg-enriched pore fluids to the south during an early part of this phase. The second phase of calcite precipitation was associated with the loss of overpressure in probably Late Cretaceous and in Cenozoic times as the result of fault movement in the basement penetrating the overlying Chalk and damaging the seal between the two chalk units. This greatly enhanced grain pressures, resulting in grain welding and pressure dissolution, causing lithification with the development of stylolites, marl seams, and brittle fractures. Associated with this loss of overpressure was the penetration of the chalk units by allochthonous fluids, rich in sulphate and hydrocarbons, derived probably from the North Sea Basin. Microbial sulphate-reduction under anoxic conditions within these allochthonous fluids has been responsible for dissolving the fine-grained iron and manganese oxides within the chalk, locally enriching the Fe and Mn content of the calcite cement. The possibility is discussed that the pattern of cementation preserved in these regionally hard chalks of Late Cenomanian and Early Turonian age may be different from that preserved in the younger (late Turonian to Campanian) more basinal chalks of eastern England.

Słowa kluczowe : kreda, hartowanie, pierwiastki śladowe, izotopy trwałe, cement, historia, chalk hardening, trace elements, stable isotopes, cement modelling, reservoir diagenesis, history,
Wydawnictwo : Faculty of Geology of the University of Warsaw
Rocznik : 2014
Numer : Vol. 64, no. 4
Strony : 419 – 455
Bibliografia : 1. Badley, M.E., Price, J.D. and Backshall, L.C. 1989. Inversion, reactivated faults and related structures: seismic examples from the southern North Sea. In: M.A. Cooper and G.D. Williams (Eds), Inversion Tectonics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 44, 201–219.
2. Bower, C.R. and Farmery, J.T. 1910. The zones of the Lower Chalk of Lincolnshire. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 11, 333–359.
3. British Geological Survey 1996. Tectonic map of Britain, Ireland and adjacent areas (T.C. Pharaoh, J.H. Morris, C.B. Long and P.D. Ryan, Compilers). 1:1 500 000. British Geological Survey; Keyworth, Nottingham.
4. BS 1377:1975. Methods of test for soils for civil engineering. British Standards Institution.
5. Egeberg, P.K. and Saigal, G.C. 1991. North Sea chalk diagenesis: cementation of chalks and healing of fractures. Chemical Geology, 92, 339 –354.
6. Hancock, J.M. 1963. The hardness of the Irish Chalk. The Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 14, 157–164.
7. Hancock, J.M. 1975. The petrology of the Chalk. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 86, 499–535.
8. Hardman, R.F.P. 1982. Chalk reservoirs of the North Sea. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, 30, 119–137
9. Hu, X-F, Jeans, C.V. and Dickson, J.A.D. 2012. Geochemical and stable isotope patterns of calcite cementation in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk, UK: Direct evidence from calcite-filled vugs in brachiopods. Acta Geologica Polonica, 62, 143−172.
10. Hu, X-F, Long, D. and Jeans, C.V. 2014. A novel approach to the study of the development of the Chalk’s smectite assemblage. Clay Minerals, 49, 279–299
11. Jeans, C.V. 1980. Early submarine lithification in the Red Chalk and Lower Chalk of Eastern England: a bacterial control model and its implications. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 43, 81–157.
12. Jeans, C.V., Long, D., Hall, M.A., Bland, D.J. and Cornford, C. 1991. The geochemistry of the Plenus Marls at Dover, England: evidence of fluctuating oceanographic conditions and of glacial control during the development of the Cenomanian–Turonian δ13C anomaly. Geological Magazine , 128, 603–632.
13. Jeans, C.V., Hu, X-F, and Mortimore, R.N. 2012. Calcite cements and the stratigraphical significance of the marine δ13C carbonate reference curve for the Upper Cretaceous chalk of England. Acta Geologica Polonica, 62, 173–196.
14. Jeans, C.V., Tosca, N.J., Boreham, S. and Hu, X-F. 2014. Clay mineral-grain size-calcite cement relationships in Upper Cretaceous Chalk, UK: a preliminary investigation. Clay Minerals, 49, 299–325.
15. Jukes-Browne, A.J. and Hill, W. 1903. The Cretaceous rocks of Britain, Vol. II – the Lower and Middle Chalk of England. Memoir of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, London. HMSO, 568 pp.
16. Jukes-Browne, A.J. and Hill, W. 1904. The Cretaceous rocks of Britain, Vol. III – the Upper Chalk of England. Memoir of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, London. HMSO, 566 pp.
17. Lamplugh, G.W. 1895. Notes on the White Chalk of Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 13, 65–87.
18. Maliva, R.G. and Dickson, J.A.D. 1997. Ulster White Limestone Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Northern Ireland: effects of basalt loading on chalk diagenesis. Sedimentology , 44, 105–112.
19. Mimran, Y. 1975. Fabric deformation induced in Cretaceous chalks by tectonic stress. Tectonophysics, 26, 309–316.
20. Mimran, Y. 1977. Chalk deformation and large-scale migration of calcium carbonate. Sedimentology, 24, 333–360.
21. Mimran, Y. 1978. The induration of Upper Cretaceous Yorkshire and Irish chalks. Sedimentary Geology, 20, 141–164.
22. Mitchell, S.F. 1995. Lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Hunstanton Formation (Red Chalk, Cretaceous) succession at Speeton, North Yorkshire, England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 50, 285–303.
23. Mortimore, R.N., Wood, C.J. and Gallois, R.W. 2001. British Upper Cretaceous Stratigraphy. Geological Conservation Review Series 23, 558 pp. Joint Nature Conservation Committee; Peterborough, U.K.
24. Mortimore, R.N. 2012. Making sense of Chalk: a total rock approach to its Engineering Geology. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrology, 45, 252–334.
25. Mortimore, R.N. 2014. Logging the Chalk. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Caithness, Scotland. 257 pp. plus Appendices.
26. Mortimore, R.N. and James, L. 2014. The search for onshore analogues for the offshore Chalk of the North Sea. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, in press.
27. Oakman, C.D. and Partington, M.A. 1998. Cretaceous. In: K.W. Glennie (Ed.), Petroleum geology of the North Sea: basic concepts and recent advances, pp. 294–349. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
28. Pharaoh, T.C., Morris, J.H., Long, C.B. and Ryan, P.B. 1996. 1:1 500 000 Tectonic map of Britain, Ireland and adjacent areas. British Geological Survey; Keyworth, Nottingham.
29. Scholle, P.A. 1974. Diagenesis of Upper Cretaceous chalks from England, Northern Ireland, and the North Sea. Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, 1, 177–210.
30. Starmer, I.C. 1995. Deformation of the Upper Cretaceous Chalk at Selwicks Bay, Flamborough Head, Yorkshire: its significance in the structural evolution of north-east England and the North Sea Basin. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 50, 213–228.
31. Starmer, I.C. 2008. The concentration of folding and faulting in the Chalk at Staple Newk (Scale Nab) near Flamborough, East Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 57, 95–106.
32. Starmer, I.C. 2013. Folding and faulting in the Chalk at Dykes End, Bridlington Bay, East Yorkshire, resulting from reactivations of the Flamborough Head Fault Zone. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 59, 195–201.
33. Whitham, F. 1991. The stratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous Ferriby, Welton and Burnham formations north of the Humber, north-east England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 48, 227–254.
34. Wolfe, M.J. 1968. Lithification of a carbonate mud: Senonian chalk in Northern Ireland. Sedimentary Geology, 2, 263–290.
35. Wood, C.J. and Smith, E.G. 1978. Lithostratigraphical classification of the Chalk in North Yorkshire, Humberside and Lincolnshire. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 42, 263–287.
36. Wood, C.J. and Mortimore, R.N. 1995. An anomalous Black Band succession (Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval) at Melton Ross, Lincolnshire, eastern England and its international significance. Berliner Geowissenschaftlichte Abhandlungen Reihe, E 16 (Gundolf Ernst Festschrift), 277–287.
37. Wood, C.J., Batten, D.J., Mortimore, R.N. and Wray, D.S. 1997. The stratigraphy and correlation of the Cenomanian – Turonian boundary interval succession in Lincolnshire, eastern England. Freiberger Forschungsheft, C468, 333–346.
38. Wright, C.W. 1935. The Chalk Rock fauna in East Yorkshire. Geological Magazine, 72, 441–442
DOI :
Cytuj : Trammer, J. ,Lajblová, K. ,Kraft, P. ,Sari, B. ,Kandemır, R. ,Özer, S. ,Walaszczyk, I. ,Görmüş, M. ,Demırcan, H. ,Yilmaz, C. ,Jeans, C. V. ,Long, D. ,Hu, X.-F. ,Mortimore, R. , Regional hardening of Upper Cretaceous Chalk in eastern England, UK: trace element and stable isotope patterns in the Upper Cenomanian and Turonian Chalk and their significance. Acta Geologica Polonica Vol. 64, no. 4/2014
facebook