Journal : Acta Geologica Polonica
Article : Sedimentary environments of the Neogene basins associated with the Cao Bang – Tien Yen Fault, NE Vietnam

Authors :
Fedorowski, J.
Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Maków Polnych 16, PL-61-606 Poznań, Poland, jerzy@main.amu.edu.pl,
Dunlop, J.
Museum fur Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity at the Humboldt University Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 43, D-10115 Berlin, Germany, jason.dunlop@mfn-berlin.de,
Wysocka, A.
Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, Al. Żwirki i Wigury 93, PL-02-089 Warszawa, Poland, anna.wysocka@uw.edu.pl,
Abstract : The Na Duong, That Khe and Cao Bang sedimentary basins associated with the Cao Bang – TienYen Fault (northern Vietnam) developed in the zone subparallel (distance ca. 150 km NW) to the major strike-slip Red River Fault Zone that separates the South China and the Indochina terranes. These fault-controlled basins are filled with thick series of Neogene terrestrial deposits. Thirteen sedimentary lithofacies were distinguished and grouped into facies associations to represent seven depositional environments, as follows: alluvial fans, gravel-dominated fluvial channels, sand-dominated fluvial channels, flood plains, lake margins and/or river mouths, lakes, and swamps. The facies association pattern, different in each of the investigated basins, is interpreted as a coal-bearing fluvial to lacustrine environment for the Na Duong Basin, and a fluvial environment for the That Khe Basin. The most complex pattern is displayed by the Cao Bang Basin and interpreted as an alluvial-fan to lacustrine environment. The origin of theses basins may be correlated with a sinistral transtensional regime which occurred in the Early to Middle Miocene. Besides tectonic activity, the evolution of particular basinswas also controlled by the climate,which caused a change in the rate of sediment supply and weathering conditions. The present-day shape of these basins does not correspond to their original plan, having resulted from the post-sedimentary uplift and erosion.

Keywords : baseny sedymentacyjne, facje asocjacji, neogen, osad fitogeniczny, osad klastyczny, uskok Cao Bang – Tien Yen, Wietnam, Cao Bang – Tien Yen Fault, Clastic deposits, Facies associations, Neogene, Phytogenic deposits, Tectono-sedimentation, Terrestrial sedimentary basins, Vietnam,
Publishing house : Faculty of Geology of the University of Warsaw
Publication date : 2009
Number : Vol. 59, no. 1
Page : 45 – 69

Bibliography
: Allen, C.R., Gillespie, A.R., Han, Y., Sieh, K.E., Zhun, B. and Zhu, Ch.N. 1984. Red River and associated faults, Yunnan Province, China: Quarternary geology, slip rates, and seismic hazard. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 95, 686–700.
An, Z. 2000. The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Sciences Review, 19, 171–187.
Blair, T.C. and Bilodeau, W.L. 1988. Development of tectonic cyclothems in rift, pull-apart, and foreland basins: Sedimentary response to episodic tectonism. Geology, 16, 517–520.
Chinh, V.V. 2000. Neotectonic evolution and mechanism of Cao Bang – Tien Yen fault. Journal of Sciences of the Earth, 22, 181–187.
Clark, M.K., Schoenbohm, L.M., Royden, L.H., Whipple, K.X., Burchfiel, B.C., Zhang, X., Tang, W., Wang. E. and Chen, L. 2004. Surface uplift, tectonics, and erosion of eastern Tibet from large-scale drainage patterns. Tectonics, 23, TC1006, doi: 10.1029/2002TC001402.
Clift, P., Blusztajn, J. and Duc, N.A. 2006. Large-scale drainage capture and surface uplift in eastern Tibet-SW China before 24 Ma inferred from sediments of the Hanoi Basin, Vietnam. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L19403, doi:10.1029/2006GL027772.
Clift, P., Lee, J.I., Clark, M.K. and Blusztajn, J. 2002. Erosional response of South China to arc rifting and monsoonal strengthening; a record from the South China Sea. Marine Geology, 184, 207–226.
Clift, P.D. and Sun, Z. 2006. The sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin and the southern Hainan margin, South China sea: Implications for uplift and monsoon intensification. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, B06405, doi:10.1029/2005JB004048.
Cohen, A.D. 1974. Petrography and paleoecology of Holocene peats from the Okefenokee swamp-marsh complex of Georgia. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 44, 716–726.
Crowell, J.C. and Link, M.H. 1982. Geologic History of Ridge Basin, Southern California. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Dallas, TX, Pacific Section, Field Trip Guidebook, 304 pp.
Cuong, N.Q., Świerczewska, A., Wysocka, A., Phan Dong, P. and Huyen, V.N. 2006. Activity of the Cao Bang-Tien Yen fault zone (NE Vietnam) – record in associated sedimentary basins. Abstracts, 17th International Sedimentological Congress, Fukuoka Japan, P-074.
Cuong, N.T. 2000. Geological and mineral resources map of Cao Bang-Dong Khe sheet 1:50 000. Northeast Division. Department of Geology and Mineral of Vietnam, Hanoi.
Diessel, C.F.K. 1992. Coal-bearing Depositional Systems, pp. 1–721. Springer; Berlin – Heidelberg.
Fair-Page, T. and Cohen, A.D. 1990. Paleoecological History of West-Central Okefenokee Swamp Based on Palynologic and Petrographic Analysis. Palynology, 14, 27–39.
Gawthorpe, R.L. and Leeder, M.R. 2000. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of active extensional basins. Basin Research, 12, 195–218.
Gilley, L.D., Harrison, T.M., Leloup, P.H., Ryerson, F.J., Lovera, O.M. and Wang, J.H. 2003. Direct dating of left-lateral deformation along the Red River shear zone, China and Vietnam. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 2127, doi:10.1029/2001JB001726.
Gmur, D., Świerczewska, A. and Wysocka, A. 2006. Depositional environment of Tertiary coals from Na Duong Basin Northern Vietnam. Geoscientic Colloquium Reports, 1(1), 31–32, on-line http://www.uj.edu.pl/ING/ptg_krakow.
Hung, T.D., Tuyet, T.D. and Vortisch, W. 2005. Organo-petrological characteristics and forming media of the Na Duong coal basin. Geology & Mineral Resources, 9, 187–195. In Vietnamese, with English summary
Huyen, N.X., Pha, P.D., Cuong, N.C. and Wysocka, A. 2003. Some features of Paleogen-Neogene deposits in the Song Lo depression and their relationship with tectonic activities. Journal of Sciences of the Earth, 25, 150–160. In Vietnamese, with English summary
Jerzykiewicz, T. and McLean, J.R. 1980. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological framework of coal-bearing Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary strata, Coal Valley area, Central Alberta Foothills. Geological Survey of Canada, 79-12, 1–47.
Kim, S.B., Chough, S.K. and Chun, S.S. 2003. Tectonic controls on spatio-temporel development of depositional systems and generation of fining-upward basin fills in a strike-slip setting: Kyokpori Formation (Cretaceous), south-west Korea. Sedimentology, 50, 639–665.
Larsen, V. and Steel, R.J. 1985. The sedimentary history of a debris-flow dominated, Devonian alluvial fan – a study of textural inversion. Sedimentology, 25, 37–59.
Lap, D.Q. 1991. Geological andmineral resourcesmap of Van Mich-That Khe. Lang Son sheet 1:50 000. Intergeo Division. Department of Geology and Mineral of Vietnam, Hanoi.
Leloup, P.H., Arnaud, N., Lacassin, R., Kienast, J-R., Harrison, T.M., Phan Trong, T.T., Replumaz, A. and Tapponnier, P. 2001. New constraints on the structure, thermochronology, and timing of the Ailao Shan-red River shear zone, SE Asian. Journal of Geophysical Researches, 106, 6683–6732.
Leloup, P.H., Lacassin, R., Tapponnier, P., Schärer, U., Dalai, Z., Xiaohan, L., Liangshang, Z. and Trinh, P.T. 1995. The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina. Tectonophysics, 251, 3–84.
McLaughlin, R.J. and Nilsen, T.H. 1982. Neogene non-marine sedimentation and tectonics in small pull-apart basins of the San Andreas fault system, Sonoma County, California. Sedimentology, 29, 865–877.
Miall, A.D. 1977. A review of the braided river depositional environment. Earth-Sciences Review, 13, 1–62.
Miall, A.D. 1978. Lithofacies types and vertical profile models in braided river deposits: a summary. In: A.D. Miall (Ed.), Fluvial Sedimentology. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geology Memoirs, 5, 597–604.
Miall, A.D. 1996. The geology of fluvial deposits, pp. 1–582. Springer; Berlin-Heidelberg.
Miall, A.D. 2000. Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis, pp. 1–616. Springer; Berlin-Heidelberg.
Morley, C.K. 2002. A tectonic model for the Teriary evolution of strike-slip faults and rift basins in SE Asia. Tectonophysics, 347, 189–215.
Morley, C.K. 2007. Variations in Late Cenozoic-Recent strike-slip and oblique-extensional geometries, within Indochina: The influence of pre-existing fabrics. Journal of Structural Geology, 29, 36–58.
Nemec, W. and Postma, G. 1993. Quaternary alluvial fans in southwestern Crete: sedimentation processes and geomorphic evolution. In: M. Marzo & C. Puigdefabreges (Eds), Alluvial Sedimentation. International Association of Sedimentology, Special Publications, 17, 235–276.
Nemec, W. and Steel, R.J. 1984. Alluvial and coastal conglomerates: their significant features and some comments on gravelly mass-flow deposits. In: E.H. Koster & R.J.
Steel (Eds), Sedimentology of Gravels and Conglomerates. Canadian Society of Petrology, Memoirs, 10, 1–31.
Nguyen Quoc, C., Świerczewska, A., Wysocka, A., Phan Dong, P. and Huyen, V.N. 2006. Activity of the Cao Bang-Tien Yen fault zone (NE Vietnam) – record in associated sedimentary basins. Abstracts, 17th International Sedimentological Congress, P-074. Fukuoka.
Nilsen, T.H. & Sylvester, A.G. 1995. Strike-slip basins. In: C.J. Busby and R.V. Ingersoll (Eds), Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins, pp. 425–457, Blackwell; Cambridge.
Petersen, H.I., Andersen, C., Anh, P.H., Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A., Nielsen, L.H., Nytoft, H.P., Rosenberg, P. and Thanh, L. 2001. Petroleum potential of Oligocene lacustrine mudstones and coals at Dong Ho, Vietnam – an outcrop analogue to terrestrial source rocks in the greater Song Hong Basin. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 19, 135–154.
Porębski, S. 1997. Slope-type fan delta in a strike-slip setting; Świebodzice Basin (Devonian-Carboniferous), Sudety Mts. In: J. Wojewoda (Ed.), Obszary źródłowe: zapis kopalny, pp. 35–53. Wind; Wrocław.
Pubellier, M., Rangin, C., Phach, P.V., Que, B.C., Hung, D.T. and Sang, C.L. 2003. The Cao Bang – Tien Yen Fault: Implications on the relationships between the Red River Fault and the South China Coastal Belt. Advances in Natural Sciences, 4, 347–361.
Rangin, C., Klein, M., Roques, D., Le Pichon, X. and Trong, L.V. 1995. The Red River fault system in the Tonkin Gulf, Vietnam. Tectonophysics, 243, 209–222.
Reading, H.G. 1996. Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy, pp. 1–688. Blackwell Science.
Ren, J., Tamaki, K., Li, S. and Junxia, Z. 2002. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting and its dynamic setting in Eastern China and adjacent areas. Tectonophysics, 344, 175–205.
Ryang, W.H. and Chough, S.K. 1999. Alluvial-to-lacustrine systems in a pull-apart margin: southwestern Eumsung Basin (Cretaceous), Korea. Sedimentary Geology, 127, 31–47.
Sachsenhofer, R.F., Bechtel, A., Reischenbacher, D. and Weiss, 2003. Evolution of lacustrine systems along the Miocene Mur-Mürz fault system (Eastern Alps, Austria) and implications on source rocks in pull-apart basins. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 20, 83–110.
Schoenbohm, L.M., Burchfiel, B.C., Liangzhong, C. and Jiyun, Y. 2005. Exhumation of the Ailao Shan shear zone recorded by Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, Yunnan Province, China. Tectonics, 24, TC6015, doi:10.1029/2005TC001803.
Schoenbohm, L.M., Burchfiel, B.C., Liangzhong, C. and Jiyun, Y. 2006. Miocene to present activity along the Red River fault, China, in the context of continental extrusion, upper-crustal rotation, and lower-crustal flow. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 118, 672–688.
Schoenbohm, L.M., Whipple, K.X., Burchfiel, B.C. and Chen, L. 2004. Geomorphic constraints on surface uplift, exhumation, and plateau growth in the Red River region, Yunnan Province, China. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 116, 895–909.
Strehlau, K. 1989. Facies and genesis of Carboniferous coal seams of Northwest Germany. International Journal of Coal Geology, 15, 245–292.
Su, D., White, N. and McKenzie, D. 1989. Extension and subsidence of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea. Basin Research, 2, 205-222.
Sun, Z., Zhou, D., Zhong, Z., Zeng, Z. and Wu, S. 2003. Experimental evidence for the dynamics of the formation of the Yinggehai basin, NW South China Sea. Tectonophysics, 372, 41–58.
Tapponnier, P., Lacassin, R., Leloup, P. H., Schärer, U., Dalai, Z., Xiaohan, L., Liangshang, Z. and Jiayou, Z. 1990. The Ailao Shan/Red River metamorphic belt: Tertiary left-lateral shear between Indochina and South China. Nature, 343, 431–437.
Tapponnier, P., Peltzer, G. and Armijo, R. 1986. On the mechanics of the collision between India and Asia. In: M.P. Coward & A.C. Ries (Eds), Collision Tectonics. Geological Society. Special Publication, 19, 115–157.
Thuan, D.V. 2006. Results of palynological analysis of the Neogene deposits from the northern part of Vietnam. Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology. Institute of Geological Sciences, pp. 1–12. Hanoi. Unpublished, in Vietnamese
Thuy, D.K. 2000. Geological and mineral resources map of Lang Son sheet 1:200 000 (F-48-XXIII). Department of Geology and Mineral of Vietnam, Hanoi.
Tran, D.N. and Trinh, D. 1975. New results of study on biostratigraphy of Neogene sediments of the NE Vietnam. In: Collection of stratigraphical works on NE Vietnam, pp. 244–283. Research and Survey Works. Publish House of Science and Technology, Hanoi. In Vietamese
Trinh, D. 1979. Summary of hitherto research works on the paleontology and stratigraphy of the Tertiary sediments in the Vietnam territory. PetroVietnam Review, 143, 10–12.
Trung, P.Q., Quynh, P.H., Bat, D., An, N.Q., Khoi, D.V. and Hieu, D.V. 2000. Database of Palynology (Spores and Pollens) of the Na Duong Formation. PetroVietnam Review, 7, 18–27. In Vietnamese
Viet, L.T. 2003. Structural and Geodynamic Features of Cenozoic Basins, North Vietnam. Ha Noi University of Mine and Geology. Hanoi, 168 pp. PhD dissertation, unpublished, in Vietnamese
Wan, S., Li, A., Clift, P.D. and Stuut, J-B.W. 2007. Development of the East Asian monsoon: Mineralogical and sedimentologic records in the northern South China Sea since 20 Ma. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 254, 561–582.
Wang, P.L., Lo, Ch. H., Chung, T.Y., Lee, Ch. Y. and Thang, T.V. 2000. Onset timing of left-lateral movement along the Ailao Shan – Red River Shear Zone: 40Ar/39Ar dating constraint from the Nam Dinh Area, northeastern Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 18, 281–292.
Wysocka, A. and Świerczewska, A. 2003. Alluvial deposits from the strike-slip fault Lo River Basin (Oligocene/Miocene), Red River Fault Zone, north-western Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21, 1097–1112.
Wysocka, A. and Świerczewska, A. 2005. Tectonically-controlled sedimentation of Cenozoic deposits from selected basins along the Vietnamese segment of the Red River fault Zone. Acta Geologica Polonica, 55, 131–145.
Wysocka, A., Świerczewska, A., Cuong, N.C., Phan, P.D. and Huyen, V.N. 2002. Some remarks on the Neogene alluvial deposits from the Lo River Basin (northern Vietnam). Petrovietnam Review, 4, 9–13.
Wysocka, A., Świerczewska, A., Cuong, N.C., Gmur, D., Phan, D.P. and Huyen, V.N. 2005. Some remarks on the Neogene coal-bearing deposits from the Na Duong Basin (N Vietnam). 8th International Conference on Fluvial Sedimentology. Abstracts Volume, p. 318.
Wysocka, A., Świerczewska, A., Cuong, N.C., Gmur D., Phan Dong, P. and Huyen, V.N. 2006. Depositional style of the Cao Bang-Tien Yen Fault Zone-related Neogene sedimentary basins (NE Vietnam). Abstracts, 17th International Sedimentological Congress, p. O-328, Fukuoka.
Wysocka, A., Świerczewska, A., Cuong, N.C., Ilnicki, S., Gmur, D., Huyen X.N. and Pha, P.D. 2007. Reconstruction of terrestrial depositional systems (Paleogene/Neogene) in sedimentary basins linked with strike-slip zones, northern Vietnam. Final report of State Committee for Scientific Research Project No.: 2 P04D 04626. Warsaw, 88 pp. Unpublished, in Polish
Yem, N.T. 1985. Recent movements and recent fissures of the Red River trough and neighbouring regions. Final report of National Scientific Project No.: 48.02.03. Institute of Earth Sciences, National Center for Natural Science & Technology, Hanoi. In Vietnamese
DOI :
Qute : Fedorowski, J. ,Dunlop, J. ,Wysocka, A. ,Wysocka, A. , Sedimentary environments of the Neogene basins associated with the Cao Bang – Tien Yen Fault, NE Vietnam. Acta Geologica Polonica Vol. 59, no. 1/2009
facebook