Journal : Acta Geologica Polonica
Article : Signatures of Late Neoproterozoic Gondwana assembly and Maronian glaciation in Lesser Himalaya: a palaeogeographical and stratigraphical approach

Authors :
Umar, M.
Department of Earth Sciences, COMSATS Institute of information Technology Abbottabad, Pakistan,
Betts, P.
School of Earth Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University Clayton Campus, Melbourne, Australia 3800,
Khan, M. M. S.
Department of Earth Sciences, COMSATS Institute of information Technology Abbottabad, Pakistan,
Sabir, M. A.
Department of Earth Sciences, COMSATS Institute of information Technology Abbottabad, Pakistan,
Farooq, M.
Department of Earth Sciences, COMSATS Institute of information Technology Abbottabad, Pakistan,
Zeb, A.
Department of Earth Sciences, COMSATS Institute of information Technology Abbottabad, Pakistan,
Jadoon, U. K.
Department of Earth Sciences, COMSATS Institute of information Technology Abbottabad, Pakistan,
Ali, S.
Department of Earth Sciences, COMSATS Institute of information Technology Abbottabad, Pakistan,
Abstract : Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of Late Neoproterozoic successions in Lesser Himalaya are combined herein with palaeogeographical considerations and comparisons with equivalent successions in India and South China. The succession starts with the Hazara Formation, which contains complete and incomplete Bouma sequences suggesting its deposition in deep marine turbidite settings. The overlying Tanawal Formation, rich in massive sandstone, shale and siltstone, was deposited in shallow marine conditions, as indicated by the presence of parallel lamination, large scale tabular, trough cross- and hummocky cross-stratifications. The Tanawal Formation facies shift laterally from proximal (south-southeast) to distal (north-northwest). The glaciogenic Tanaki Boulder Bed, overlying the Tanawal Formation, was deposited during the Maronian glaciation. It is equivalent to the Blaini Formation of India, and to the Sinian diamictites of South China. The Abbottabad Formation of Cambrian age overlies the Tanaki Boulder Bed, and is composed of dolomite, chert nodules and phosphate-rich packages; similar successions are documented in India and South China at the same stratigraphical interval. The similarities of the Neoproterozoic successions of Lesser Himalaya (both in Pakistan and India) and South China suggests their possible proximity during the break-up of Rodinia and the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent.

Keywords : neoproterozoik, paleogeografia, zlodowacenie, Rodinia, rozpad, Himalaje Małe, Neoproterozoic, Palaeogeography, Glaciation, Rodinia Break-up, Lesser Himalaya,
Publishing house : Faculty of Geology of the University of Warsaw
Publication date : 2015
Number : Vol. 65, no. 1
Page : 1 – 19

: 1. Ahsan, N. and Chaudhry, M.N. 2008. Geology of Hettangian to Middle Eocene Rock of Hazara and Kashmir Basins, northwest lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Geological Bulletin of Panjab University, 43, 131–152.
2. Alberti, M., Fürsich, F.T. and Pandey, D.K. 2012. Deciphering condensed sequences: A case study from the Oxfordian (Upper Jurassic) Dhosa Oolite member of the Kachchh Basin, western India. Sedimentology, 60, 574–598.
3. Arnott, J.R.L. and Southard, J.B. 1990. Exploratory flow – duct experiments on combined flow bed configurations, and some implication for interpreting storm event stratigraphy. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 60, 211–219.
4. Baig, M.S. 1991. Structure and geochronology of Pre-Himalayan and Himalayan Orogenic events in the northwest Himalaya, Pakistan, with special reference to Besham. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Oregon State University, 397 pp.
5. Baraboshkin, E.Y. 2009. Condensed Sections: Terminology, Types, and Accumulation Conditions. Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 64, 153–160.
6. Boggs, S. 2011. Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, 5th ed., 600 pp. Pearson Education.
7. Boggs, S. Jr. 2006. Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy, 4th ed., Pearson, 662 pp. Prentichall Publisher.
8. Bouma, A.H. 1962. Sedimentology of some flysch deposits: a graphic approach to facies interpretation, 168 pp. Elsevier; Amsterdam.
9. Brenchley, P.J. 1985. Storm-influenced sandstone beds. Marine Geology, 9, 369–396.
10. Cheel, R.J. and Leckie, D.A. 1993. Hummocky cross stratification. In: V.P.Wright (Ed.), Sedimentology Review 1, pp. 103–122, Blackwell; Oxford.
11. Cawood, P.A. and Buchan, C. 2007. Linking accretionary orogenesis with supercontinent assembly: Earth-Science Reviews , 82, 217–256.
12. Cawood, P.A., Wang, Y., Xu, Y. and Zhao, G. 2013. Locating South China in Rodinia and Gondwana: A fragment of greater India lithosphere? Geology, 41, 903–906.
13. Collinson, J.J. D., Mountney, N.P. and Thompson, D.B. 2006. Sedimentary structures. 3rd ed., 292 pp. Terra Publisher House.
14. Crawford, A.R. and Davis, R.G. 1975. Ages of the Pre-Mesozoic formations of the lesser Himalaya, Hazara District, North Pakistan. Geological Magazine, 112, 509–514.
15. Deb, M. and Thorpe, R.I. 2004. Geochronological constraints in the Precambrian geology of Rajasthan and their metallogenic implications. In: M. Deb et al. (Eds), Sediment-hosted lead–zinc sulphide deposits; attributes and models of some major deposits in India, Australia and Canada, pp. 246–263. Narosa Publishing House New Delhi; India.
16. Duke, W.L. 1990. Geostraphic circulation or shallow marine turbidity currents? The dilemma of paleoflow pattern in storm-influenced prograding shoreline systems. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 60, 870–883.
17. Evans, D.A.D. 2009. The palaeomagnetically viable, longlived and all-inclusive Rodinia supercontinent reconstruction. In: J.B. Murphy, J.D. Keppie and A.J. Hynes (Eds), Ancient Orogens and Modern Analogues. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 327, 371–404.
18. Harms, J.C., Southard, J.B. and Walker, R.G. 1982. Structures and sequences in clastic rocks. SEPM Lecture notes for short course 9, variously paginated.
19. Harms, J.C., Southard, J.B., Spearing, D.R. and Walker, R.G. 1975. Depositional environments as interpreted from primary sedimentary structures and stratification sequences. SEPM Short Course 2, 161 pp
20. Jiang, G., Sohl, L.E. and Christie-Blick, N. 2003. Neoproterozoic stratigraphic comparison of the Lesser Himalaya (India) and Yangtze block (south China): Paleogeographic implications. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 31, 917–920.
21. Khan, A.S., Kelling, G. Umar, M. and Kassi, A.M. 2002. Depositional environments and reservoir assessment of Late Cretaceous sandstones in the south central Kirthar foldbelt, Pakistan. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 25, 373–406.
22. Kumar, R. 1985. Fundamentals of historical geology and stratigraphy of India, 254 pp. Wiley Eastern; New Delhi.
23. Latif, M.A. 1970. Explanatory notes on the geology of Southeastern Hazara to accompany the revised geological map. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, Sonderband, 15, 5–20.
24. Lewis, K.B. 1971. Slumping on a continental slope inclined 1-40°. Sedimentology, 16, 97–110.
25. Li, Z.X., Bogdanova, S.V., Collins, A.S., Davidson, A., De Waele, B., Ernst, R.E., Fitzsimons, I.C.W., Fuck, R.A., Gladkochub, D.P., Jacobs, J., Karlstromk, K.E., Lu, S., Natapovm, L.M. , Pease, V., Pisarevsky, S.A., Thrane, K. and Vernikovsky, V. 2008. Assembly, configuration, and breakup history of Rodinia: A synthesis. Precambrian Research, 160, 179–210.
26. Li, Z. X., Evans, D.A.D. and Zhang, S. 2004. A 90° spin on Rodinia: possible causal links between the Neoproterozoic supercontinent, superplume, true polar wander and low-latitude glaciation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 220, 409–421.
27. Lin, J.L. and Fuller, M. 1990. Palaeomagnetism, North China and South China collision, and the Tan-Lu fault: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 331, 589–598.
28. Macouin, M., Besse, J., Ader, M., Gilder, S., Yang, Z., Sun, Z. and Agrinier, P. 2004. Combined paleomagnetic and isotopic data from the Doushantuo carbonates, South China: Implications for the “snowball Earth” hypothesis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 224, 387–398.
29. Masson, D.G., van Neil, B. and Weaver, P.P.E. 1997. Flow processes and sediment deformation in the Canary Debris Flow on the NW African Rise. Sedimentary Geology, 110, 163–179.
30. Meert, J.G. 2003. A synopsis of events related to the assembly of eastern Gondwana. Tectonophysics, 362, 1–40.
31. Mutti, E. and Ricci Luchhi, F. 1978. Turbidites of the northern Appennines: introduction to the facies analyses. International Geological Review, 11, 125–166.
32. Pickering, K.T., Hiscott, R. and Hein, F.J. 1989. Deep water environments: clastic sedimentation and tectonics. 416 pp. Unwin Hyman Publishers Limited; London.
33. Powell, C., McA Li, Z.X., Mc Elhinny, M.W., Meert, J.G. and Park, J.K. 1993. Palaeomagnetic constraints on timing of the Neoproterozoic break up of Rodinia and the Cambrian formation of Gondwana. Geology, 21, 889–892.
34. Reineck, H.E. and Singh, I.B. 1980. Depositional sedimentary environments with reference to terrigenous clastics. 549 pp. Springer Verlag; Berlin.
35. Searle, M.P. and Khan, M.A. 1996. Geological Map of North Pakistan and Adjacent Areas of Northern Ladakh and Western Tibet, Scale 1:650,000. Oxford University; Oxford.
36. Seeber, L., Armbruster, J.G. and Quittmeyer, R.C. 1981. Seismicity and continental subduction in the Himalayan arc. ln: H.K. Gupta and F. Delany (Eds), Zagros-Hindukush-Himalaya Geodynamic Evolution. American Geophysical Union, Geodynamics Series, 3, 215–242.
37. Shanmugam, G. and Moiola, R.J. 1988. Submarine fans: Characteristics, models, classification and reservoir potential. Earth Science Review, 24, 383–428.
38. Stow, D.A.V., Huc, A.Y. and Bertrand, P. 2001. Depositional processes of black shales in deep water. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 18, 491–498.
39. Strba, L. 2012. Deep-marine channel deposits of Cotumba-Sita-Tǎtaru Sandstones, Teleajen Valley, Romania (East Carpathian Flysch Zone). Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Geologia, 57, 27–34
40. Swift, D.J.P., Figueiredo, A.G., Freeland, G.L. and Oertel, G.F. 1983. Hummocky cross stratification and megaripples: a geological double standard? Journal of Sedimentary Petrolology, 53, 1295–1317.
41. Tahirkheli, R.A.K. 1982. Geology of the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindukush in Pakistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 15, 1–51.
42. Tahirkheli, R.A.K. and Jan, M.Q. 1979. Geology of Kohistan and adjoining Eurasian and Indo-Pakistan continents Pakistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 11, 1–30.
43. Tewari, V.C. 2012. Neoproterozoic Blaini glacial diamictite and Ediacaran Krol carbonate sedimentation in the Lesser Himalaya, India. In: G.M. Bhat, J. Craig et al. (Eds), Geology and hydrocarbon potential of Neoproterozoic–Cambrian Basins in Asia: an introduction. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 366, 265–276
44. Tewari, V.C. and Sial, A.N. 2007. Neoproterozic-Early Cambrian Isotopic variation and chemostratigraphy of the lesser Himalaya, India, Eastern Gondwana. Chemical Geology, 237, 82–106.
45. Umar, M., Sabir, M.A., Farooq, M., Khan, M.M.S.S., Faridullah, F., Jadoon, U.K. and Khan, A.S. 2014. Stratigraphic and sedimentological attributes in Hazara basin, lesser Himalya, north Pakistan: their role in deciphering minerals potential. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, DOI: 10.1007/s12517-014-1322-1.
46. Umar, M., Khan, A.S., Kelling, G. and Kassi, A.M. 2011a. Depositional Environments of Campanian-Maastrichtian Successions in the Kirthar Fold Belt, Southwest Pakistan: Tectonic Influences on Late Cretaceous Sedimentation across the Indian Passive Margin. Sedimentary Geology, 237, 30–45.
47. Umar, M., Friis, H., Khan, A.S., Kassi, A.M., Kasi, A.K. 2011b. The effects of diagenesis on the reservoir characters in sandstones of the Late Cretaceous Pab Formation, Kirthar Fold Belt, southern Pakistan. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 40, 622–635.
48. Walker, R.G. 1978. Deep-water sandstone facies and ancient submarine fans: model for exploration for stratigraphic traps. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin , 62, 932–966.
49. Wang, J. and Li, Z.-X. 2001. Sequence stratigraphy and evolution of the Neoproterozoic marginal basins along southeastern Yangtze Craton, South China. Gondwana Research , 4, 17–26.
50. Wang, J. and Li, Z.X. 2003. History of Neoproterozoic rift basins in South China: implications for Rodinia break-up. Precambrian Research, 122, 141–158.
51. Yang, Z., Sun, Z., Yang, T. and Pei, J. 2004. A long connection (750–380 Ma) between South China and Australia: Paleomagnetic constraints. Earth and Planetary Science Letters , 220, 423–434.
Qute : Umar, M. ,Betts, P. ,Khan, M. M. S. ,Sabir, M. A. ,Farooq, M. ,Zeb, A. ,Jadoon, U. K. ,Ali, S. ,Ali, S. , Signatures of Late Neoproterozoic Gondwana assembly and Maronian glaciation in Lesser Himalaya: a palaeogeographical and stratigraphical approach. Acta Geologica Polonica Vol. 65, no. 1/2015