Journal : Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
Article : Temporal and spatial parameters of gait during pregnancy

Authors :
Demiral, M.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Turkish Aeronautical Association, 06790 Ankara, Turkey,
Abdel-Wahab, A.
Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU, UK,
Silberschmidt, V.
Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU, UK,
Jaramillo, H.
Universidad del Valle, Cali-Colombia,
Gomez, L.
Universidad del Valle, Cali-Colombia,
Garcia, J. J.
Universidad del Valle, Cali-Colombia,
Mróz, A.
Metal Forming Institute, Poznań, Poland, adrian.mroz@inop.poznan.pl,
Skalski, K.
Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Precision Mechanics, Warsaw, Poland,
Walczyk, W.
Metal Forming Institute, Poznań, Poland,
Kajzer, A.
Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Zabrze, Poland, anita.kajzer@polsl.pl,
Kajzer, W.
Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Zabrze, Poland,
Dzielicki, J.
Medical University of Silesia, School of Medicine in Katowice, Katowice, Poland,
Matejczyk, D.
Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Zabrze, Poland,
Nagerl, H.
University of Göttingen, Biomechanical Working Group in Department of Orthodontics, Germany,
Dathe, H.
University of Göttingen, Biomechanical Working Group in Department of Orthodontics, Germany,
Fiedler, Ch.
Lima Corporate; Hamburg, Germany,
Gowers, L.
University of Göttingen, Biomechanical Working Group in Department of Orthodontics, Germany,
Kirsch, S.
University of Göttingen, Biomechanical Working Group in Department of Orthodontics, Germany,
Kubein-Meesenburg, D.
University of Göttingen, Biomechanical Working Group in Department of Orthodontics, Germany,
Dumont, C.
University of Göttingen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Göttingen, Germany,
Wachowski, M. M.
University of Göttingen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Göttingen, Germany, martin.wachowski@web.de,
Kobielarz, M.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mechatronics and Theory of Mechanisms, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland., magdalena.kobielarz@pwr.edu.pl,
Chwiłkowska, A.
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical University, Wrocław, Poland,
Turek, A.
School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland, Chair and Department of Biopharmacy, Sosnowiec, Poland,
Maksymowicz, K.
Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical Faculty, Wrocław Medical University, Wrocław, Poland,
Marciniak, M.
Department of Plastic Forming and Metrology, Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland,
Patralski, K.
Wrocław University of Technology, krzysztof.patralski@pwr.wroc.pl,
Konderla, P.
Wrocław University of Technology,
Su, P.
School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, BeiHang University, People’s Republic of China,
Yang, Y.
School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, BeiHang University, People’s Republic of China, yang_mech@126.com,
Song, Y
School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, BeiHang University, People’s Republic of China,
Li, F.
Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, China,
Mei, Q.
Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, China,
Gu, Y.
Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, China, guyaodong@hotmail.com,
Bertuit, J.
Laboratory of Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Motor Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, jbertuit@ulb.ac.be,
Feipel, V.
Laboratory of Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Motor Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium,
Rooze, M.
Laboratory of Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Motor Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium,
Abstract : The objective of this study was to describe spatial and temporal parameters during gait in pregnant women, and to compare it with women in post-partum and with a control group. Methods: To investigate alteration in natural locomotion, we used an electronic walkway (GAITRite system). Fifty-eight pregnant women (four last months of pregnancy), nine post-partum women and twenty-three healthy nulligravidae women participated in this study. The women performed the motor task at three different speeds: preferred, fast and slow. Spatial and temporal parameters for pregnant and non-pregnant were compared. Results: In pregnant women, gait speed, step length and cadence were reduced. Consequently, cycle time was longer. The gait cycle was modified by an increase of stance phase and a decrease of swing phase. As a result, an increase of double support and a decrease of single support phases were observed. Step width increased by 15%. Conclusions: The pattern of gait displayed significant modifications during pregnancy as compared to nulliparous women. These changes favour a more stable and safe gait. After childbirth, women kept some characteristics of gait in pregnancy during 8 months.

Keywords : ciąża, analiza lokomocji, biomechanika, pregnancy, gait analysis, GAITRite,
Publishing house : Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej
Publication date : 2015
Number : Vol. 17, nr 2
Page : 93 – 101

Bibliography
: 1 ABRAMS B., SELVIN S., Maternal weight gain pattern and birth weight, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1995, 86(2), 163–169.
2 BRANCO M., SANTOS-ROCHA R., AGUIAR L., VIEIRA F., VELOSO A., Kinematic analysis of gait in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, J. Pregnancy, 2013, 718095.
3 BUTLER E.E., COLÓN I., DRUZIN M.L., ROSE J., Postural equilibrium during pregnancy: decreased stability with an increased reliance on visual cues, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 2006, 195(4), 1104–1108.
4 DINGWELL J.B., MARIN L.C., Kinematic variability and local dynamic stability of upper body motions when walking at different speeds, J. Biomech., 2006, 39(3), 444–452.
5 ESPY D.D., YANG F., PAI Y.-C., Control of center of mass motion state through cuing and decoupling of spontaneous gait parameters in level walking, J. Biomech., 2010, 43(13), 2548–2553.
6 FALOLA J.M., DELPECH N., BRISSWALTER J., Optimization characteristics of walking with and without a load on the trunk of the body, Percept Motor Skills, 2000, 91(1), 261–272.
7 FALOLA J.M., GOUTHON P., KOUSSIHOUÉDÉ F.E., AGOSSA B., BRISSWALTER J., Modification du patron locomoteur pendant la grossesse: étude d’une population rurale africaine, Science & Sports, 2009, 24(1), 49–51.
8 FORCZEK W., STASZKIEWICZ R., Changes of kinematic gait parameters due to pregnancy, Acta Bioeng. Biomech., 2012, 14(4), 113–119.
9 FOTI T., DAVIDS J.R., BAGLEY A., A biomechanical analysis of gait during pregnancy, J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 2000, 82(5), 625–625.
10 GOTTSCHALL J.S., SHEEHAN R.C., DOWNS D.S., Pregnant women exaggerate cautious gait patterns during the transition between level and hill surfaces, J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol., 2013, 23(5), 1237–1242.
11 HOLT K.G., JENG S.F., RATCLIFFE R., HAMILL J., Energetic cost and stability during human walking at the preferred stride frequency, J. Mot. Behav., 1995, 27(2), 164–178.
12 JANG J., HSIAO K.T., HSIAO-WECKSLER E.T., Balance (perceived and actual) and preferred stance width during pregnancy, Clin. Biomech., 2008, 23(4), 468–476.
13 JENSEN R.K., DOUCET S., TREITZ T., Changes in segment mass and mass distribution during pregnancy, J. Biomech., 1996, 29(2), 251–256.
14 KRESSIG R.W., GREGOR R.J., OLIVER A., WADDELL D., SMITH W., O’GRADY M., CURNS A.T., KUTNER M., WOLF S.L., Temporal and spatial features of gait in older adults transitioning to frailty, Gait & posture, 2004, 20(1), 30–35.
15 KRISTIANSSON P., SVÄRDSUDD K., VON SCHOULTZ B., Back pain during pregnancy, Spine, 1996, 21(6), 702–708.
16 LYMBERY J.K., GILLEARD W., The stance phase of walking during late pregnancy: temporospatial and ground reaction force variables, J. Am. Podiatr. Med. Assoc., 2005, 95(3), 247–253.
17 MCCRORY J.L., CHAMBERS A.J., DAFTARY A., REDFERN M.S., Dynamic postural stability during advancing pregnancy, J. Biomech., 2010, 43(12), 2434–2439.
18 OSMAN N.A.A.B.U., GHAZALI R.M.A.T., Biomechanical evaluation on gait pattern of pregnant subjects, J. Mech. Med. Biol., 2002, 2(1), 99–116.
19 RODE L., KJÆRGAARD H., OTTESEN B., DAMM P., HEGAARD H.K., Association between gestational weight gain according to body mass index and postpartum weight in a large cohort of Danish women, Matern Child Health J., 2012, 16(2), 406–413.
20 SCHAUBERGER C.W., ROONEY B.L., GOLDSMITH L., SHENTON D., SILVA P.D., SCHAPER A., Peripheral joint laxity increases in pregnancy but does not correlate with serum relaxin levels, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 1996, 174(2), 667–671.
21 VLEEMING A., ALBERT H.B., ÖSTGAARD H.C., STURESSON B., STUGE B., European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain, Eur. Spine J., 2008, 17(6), 794–819.
22 WANG T.W., APGAR B.S., Exercise during pregnancy, Am. Fam. Physician., 1998, 57, 1846–1859.
23 WEBSTER K.E., WITTWER J.E., FELLER J.A., Validity of the GAITRite walkway system for the measurement of averaged and individual step parameters of gait, Gait & Posture. 2005, 22, 371–321.
24 WHITCOME K., SHAPIRO L.J., LIEBERMAN D.E., Fetal load and the evolution of lumbar lordosis in bipedal hominins, Nature, 2007, 450(13), 1075–1080.
DOI :
Qute : Demiral, M. ,Abdel-Wahab, A. ,Silberschmidt, V. ,Jaramillo, H. ,Gomez, L. ,Garcia, J. J. ,Mróz, A. ,Skalski, K. ,Walczyk, W. ,Kajzer, A. ,Kajzer, W. ,Dzielicki, J. ,Matejczyk, D. ,Nagerl, H. ,Dathe, H. ,Fiedler, Ch. ,Gowers, L. ,Kirsch, S. ,Kubein-Meesenburg, D. ,Dumont, C. ,Wachowski, M. M. ,Kobielarz, M. ,Chwiłkowska, A. ,Turek, A. ,Maksymowicz, K. ,Marciniak, M. ,Patralski, K. ,Konderla, P. ,Su, P. ,Yang, Y. ,Song, Y ,Li, F. ,Mei, Q. ,Gu, Y. ,Bertuit, J. ,Feipel, V. ,Rooze, M. ,Rooze, M. , Temporal and spatial parameters of gait during pregnancy. Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics Vol. 17, nr 2/2015
facebook