Journal : Acta Geophysica
Article : The gutenberg-richter law for earthquakes in air pollution episodes: A case study for Athens, Greece

Authors :
Yamasaki, K.
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe, Japan, yk2000@kobe-u.ac.jp,
Teisseyre, R.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland, rt@igf.edu.pl,
Li, C.
School of Computer Engineering and Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China, jyyin@staff.shu.edu.cn,
Majdański, M.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland, mmajd@igf.edu.pl,
Trojanowski, J.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland, jtroj@igf.edu.pl,
Öztürk, S.
Gümüşhane University, Department of Geophysics, Gümüşhane, Turkey, serkanozturk@gumushane.edu.tr,
Chattopadhyay, A.
Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India, amares.c@gmail.com,
Beziuk, G.
Wroclaw University of Technology, Institute of Telecommunications and Acoustics, Wrocław, Poland, grzegorz.beziuk@pwr.wroc.pl,
Giang, N.V.
Institute of Geophysics, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam, nvgiang189@yahoo.com,
Di Cristo, C.
Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio, Universita` di Cassino, Cassino, Italy, dicristo@unicas.it,
Radice, A.
Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio, Universita` di Cassino, Cassino, Italy, dicristo@unicas.it,
Kalinowska, M.B.
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland, monika.kalinowska@igf.edu.pl,
Nie, R.-S.
State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China, nierenshi2000@163.com,
Acharya, N.A.
Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India, nachiketaacharya@gmail.com,
Efstathiou, M.
Climate Research Group, Division of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Athens, Greece, efstathiou@avgouleaschool.gr,
Abstract : The main aim of this study is to investigate whether the main components of the photochemical smog episodes over megacities obey the Gaussian distribution or do they follow the distribution of the Gutenberg-Richter law. To this end, a case study has been implemented for Athens, Greece, which is among the most densely populated capitals in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The data employed are hourly mean values of surface ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations collected by the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network during the period 1988-2008. The results obtained show that the surface ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations obey the Gutenberg-Richter law, while their extreme values follow the Generalized Pareto distribution. This finding is important for current efforts to reliably forecast the air pollutants concentrations and to quantify their contribution to climate change. Finally, the plausible mechanisms involved in air pollution dynamics leading to the above-mentioned behaviour are also discussed, assuming the air pollution system governed by non-linear processes.

Keywords : air pollution, Gutenberg-Richter law, Generalized Pareto distribution,
Publishing house : Instytut Geofizyki PAN
Publication date : 2012
Number : Vol. 60, no. 1
Page : 280 – 290

Bibliography
: Alexandris, D., C. Varotsos, K.Y. Kondratyev, and G. Chronopoulos (1999), On the altitude dependence of solar effective UV, Phys. Chem. Earth C 24, 5, 515-517.
Bak, P., C. Tang, and K. Wiesenfeld (1988), Self-organized criticality, Phys. Rev. A 38, 1, 364-374.
Carlson, J.M., and J. Doyle (1999), Highly optimized tolerance: A mechanism for power laws in designed systems, Phys. Rev. E 60, 2, 1412-1427.
Christensen, K., L. Danon, T. Scanlon, and P. Bak (2002), Unified scaling law for earthquakes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, Suppl. 1, 2509-2513.
Cracknell, A.P., and C.A. Varotsos (1994), Ozone depletion over Scotland as derived from Nimbus-7 TOMS measurements, Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 13, 2659-2668.
Cracknell, A.P., and C.A. Varotsos (1995), The present status of the total ozone depletion over Greece and Scotland: A comparison between Mediterranean and more northerly latitudes, Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 10, 1751-1763.
Dubois, J. (1998), Non-Linear Dynamics in Geophysics, Praxis Publ. Ltd., Chichester. Efstathiou, M.N. (2006), Power-law in the extreme fluctuation of air-pollutants observed with space-borne and ground-based instrumentation, Earth Obs. Remot. Sen. 3, 83-88.
Efstathiou, M.N., H. Feretis, C. Tzanis, and J. Christodoulakis (2005), Observed association between air pollution and the biologically effective solar ultrafiolet irradiance, Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 16, 3487-3495.
Gardner, M.W., and S.R. Dorling (1998), Artificial neural networks (the multilayer perceptron) – Α review of applications in the atmospheric sciences, Atmos. Environ. 32, 14-15, 2627-2636.
Goldstein, M.L., S.A. Morris, and G.G. Yen (2004), Problems with fitting to the power-law distribution, Eur. Phys. J. B 41, 2, 255-258.
Gutenberg, B., and C.F. Richter (1944), Frequency of earthquakes in California, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 34, 185-188.
Katsambas, A., C.A. Varotsos, G. Veziryianni, and C. Antoniou (1997), Surface solar ultraviolet radiation: A theoretical approach of the SUVR reaching the ground in Athens, Greece, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 4, 2, 69-73.
Kondratyev, K.Y., and C.A. Varotsos (1996), Global total ozone dynamics – impast on surface solar ultraviolet radiation variability and ecosystems, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 3, 4, 205-209.
Lu, H.C. (2002), The statistical characters of PM10 concentration in Taiwan area, Atmos. Environ. 36, 3, 491-502.
Marsili, M., and Y.C. Zhang (1998), Interacting individuals leading to Zipf’s law, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 12, 2741-2744.
Perez, P., and A. Trier (2001), Prediction of NO and NO2 concentrations near a street with heavy traffic in Santiago, Chile, Atmos. Environ. 35, 10, 1783-1789.
Pietronero, L., E. Tosatti, V. Tosatti, and A. Vespignani (2001), Explaining the uneven distribution of numbers in nature: the laws of Benford and Zipf, Physica A 293, 1-2, 297-304.
Rieder, H.E., J. Staehelin, J.A. Maeder, T. Peter, M. Ribatet, A.C. Davison, R. Stübi, P. Weihs, and F. Holawe (2010), Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa –Part 1: Application of extreme value theory, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10, 12765-12794.
Rundle, J.B. (1989), Derivation of the complete Gutenberg–Richter magnitudefrequency relation using the principle of scale invariance, J. Geophys. Res. 94, B9, 12337-12342.
Sapkota, A., J.M. Symons, J. Kleissl, L. Wang, M.B. Parlange, J. Ondov, P.N. Breysse, G.B. Diette, P.A. Eggleston, and T.J. Buckley (2005), Impact of the 2002 Canadian forest fires on particulate matter air quality in Baltimore City, Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 1, 24-32.
Tzanis, C. (2005), Ground-based observations of ozone at Athens, Greece during the solar eclipse of 1999, Int. J. Remote Sens. 26, 16, 3585-3596.
Tzanis, C., C. Varotsos, and L. Viras (2008), Impacts of the solar eclipse of 29 March 2006 on the surface ozone concentration, the solar ultraviolet radiation and the meteorological parameters at Athens, Greece, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 2, 425-430.
Varotsos, C.A., G.J. Chronopoulos, S. Katsikis, and N.K. Sakellariou (1995), Further evidence of the role of air pollution on solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground, Int. J. Remote Sens. 16, 10, 1883-1886.
Varotsos, C., K.Y. Kondratyev, and M. Efstathiou (2001), On the seasonal variation of the surface ozone in Athens, Greece, Atmos. Environ. 35, 2, 315-320.
Varotsos, C.A., M.N. Efstathiou, and K.Y. Kondratyev (2003), Long-term variation in surface ozone and its precursors in Athens, Greece: A forecasting tool, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 10, 1, 19-23.
Varotsos, C., J. Ondov, and M. Efstathiou (2005), Scaling properties of air pollution in Athens, Greece and Baltimore, Maryland, Atmos. Environ. 39, 22, 4041- 4047.
Varotsos, P. (1976), Comments on the formation entropy of a Frenkel defect in BaF2 and CaF2, Phys. Rev. B 13, 2, 938-938.
Varotsos, P. (2007), Comparison of models that interconnect point defect parameters in solids with bulk properties, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 12, 123503.
Varotsos, P., and K. Alexopoulos (1984), Connection between the formation volume and formation Gibbs energy in noble-gas solids, Phys. Rev. B 30, 12, 7305-7306.
Windsor, H.L., and R. Toumi (2001), Scaling and persistence of UK pollution, Atmos. Environ. 35, 27, 4545-4556.
DOI :
Qute : Yamasaki, K. ,Teisseyre, R. ,Li, C. ,Majdański, M. ,Trojanowski, J. ,Öztürk, S. ,Chattopadhyay, A. ,Beziuk, G. ,Giang, N.V. ,Di Cristo, C. ,Radice, A. ,Kalinowska, M.B. ,Nie, R.-S. ,Acharya, N.A. ,Efstathiou, M. ,Efstathiou, M. , The gutenberg-richter law for earthquakes in air pollution episodes: A case study for Athens, Greece. Acta Geophysica Vol. 60, no. 1/2012
facebook