The phosphatized sponges from the Santonian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Wielkanoc Quarry (southern Poland) as a tool in stratigraphical and environmental studies

Czasopismo : Acta Geologica Polonica
Tytuł artykułu : The phosphatized sponges from the Santonian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Wielkanoc Quarry (southern Poland) as a tool in stratigraphical and environmental studies

Autorzy :
Żylińska, A.
Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, ul. Żwirki i Wigury 93, PL-02-089 Warsaw, Poland,,
Radwański, A.
Institute of Geology, University of Warsaw, Al. Żwirki i Wigury 93; PL-02-089 Warszawa, Poland,,
Olszewska-Nejbert, D.
Institute of Geology, University of Warsaw, al. Żwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warszawa, Poland,,
Abstrakty : Phosphatized sponges from the Santonian of the Wielkanoc Quarry are represented by 11 species of Hexactinosida and 16 species of Lychniscosida. Their species composition is most similar to the Micraster coranguinum Zone fauna (Middle Coniacian – Middle Santonian) of England. Three preservational groups of sponges are distinguished: 'white', 'beige' and 'dark'. They are infilled by phosphatized foraminiferal/foraminiferal-calcisphere wackestone and are contained in the marly calcareous inoceramid packstone. The sponges indicate a calm and relatively deep (> 100 m) life environment. After burial, phosphatization and exhumation, the fossil sponges were redeposited in Upper Santonian strata. The 'white' and 'beige' groups were transported laterally over a very short distance or represent lag deposits. The rolled and crushed sponges of the 'dark' group were exhumed and phosphatized more than once. They could be redeposited (reworked) nearly in the same place and/or transported from some longer distances (but not from outside the Cracow Swell). The phosphatized sponges document the former presence in the area of part of theMiddle Coniacian through Middle Santonian succession, which was removed secondarily by subsequent erosion.

Słowa kluczowe : ekologia, fosfatyzowanie, gąbki, Hexactinosida, kreda górna, osadzanie, Polska, redepozycja, Cracow Swell, Ecology, Hexactinosida, Lag deposit, Lychniscosida, Phosphatization, Poland, Redeposition, Sponges, Upper Cretaceous,
Wydawnictwo : Faculty of Geology of the University of Warsaw
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 59, no. 4
Strony : 483 – 504
Bibliografia : Alexandrowicz, S. 1954. Turonian of the southern part of the Cracow Upland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 4 (3), 361-390. In Polish
Alexandrowicz, S. 1969. Les dépots transgressif du Santonoien aux environs de Cracovie. Bulletin Sci. Acad. Min. Metal., Geology, 11, 45-59. In Polish with French summary
Baturin, G.N. 1982. Phosphorites on the sea floor. Origin, composition and distribution. Developments in Sedimentology, 33, 343 pp.
Beaulieu, S.E. 2001. Colonization of habitat islands in the deep sea: recruitment to glass sponge stalks. Deep-Sea Research I, 48 (1), 1121-1137.
Bell, J.J. and Barnes, D.K.A. 2003. Effect of disturbance on assemblages: an example using Porifera. The Biological Bulletin, 205, 144–159.
Bieda, F. 1933. Sur les Spongiaires siliceux du Sénonien des environs de Cracovie. Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 9, 1–41.
Boury-Esnault, N. and Vacelet, J. 1994. Preliminary studies on the organization and development of a hexactinellid sponge from aMediterranean cave, Oopsacas minuta. In: R.W.M. van Soest, T.M.G. van Kempen and J.C. Braekman (Eds), Sponges in Time and Space, pp. 407–415. Balkema; Rotterdam.
Brachert, T.C., Dullo, W-C. and Stoffers, P. 1987. Diagenesis of Siliceous Sponge Limestones from the Pleistocene of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Facies, 17, 41–50.
Bukowy, S. 1956. Geology of the area between Cracow and Korzkwia. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 108, 17–82. In Polish with English summary
Buła, Z. 1994. Problemy stratygrafii i wykształcenie osadów starszego paleozoiku północno-wschodniego obrzeżenia Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego. Przewodnik 65 Zjazdu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego w Sosnowcu. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Śląskiego 1431, 31–57.
Conway, K. W., Barrie, J. V. Hill, P.R., Austin, W.C. and Picard, K. 2007. Mapping sensitive benthic habitats in the strait of Georgia coastal British Columbia: deep-water sponge and corals reefs. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research, 2007-A2, 1–6.
Conway, K.W., Krautter, M., Barrie, J.V. and Neuweiler, M. 2001. Hexactinellid sponge reefs on the Canadian continental shelf: a unique “living fossil”. Geoscience Canada, 28 (2), 65–72.
Defretin-Lefranc, S. 1960. Contribution a l’étude des spongiaires siliceux du Crétacé supérieur du Nord de la France. Theses a la Faculte des Scences de Lille (1958), 1-178.
Duarte, L.V., Krautter, M. & Soares, A.F. 2001. Bioconstructions a spongiaires silicieux dans le Lias terminal du Bassin lusitanien (Portugal): stratigraphie, sedimentologie et signification paléogéographique. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 172 (5), 637–664.
Duplessis, K. and Reiswig, H.M. 2004. Three newspecies and a new genus of Farreidae (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Hexactinosida). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 117 (2), 199–212.
Finks, R.M. and Rigby, J.M. 2004. Geographic and Stratigraphic distribution. In: R. Kaesler (Ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part E (Revised), Porifera 3. The Geological Society of America and University of Kansas, 275–296.
Föllmi, K.B. 1990. Condensation and phosphogenesis: example of the Helveticmid-Cretaceous (northern Tethyanmargin). In: A.G.J. Notholt and Jarvis (Eds), Phosphorite Research and Development. Geological Society Special Publication, 52, 237-252. The Geological Society; London.
Föllmi, K.B. 1996. The phosphorus cycle, phosphogenesis and marine phosphate rich deposit. Earth-Science Reviews, 40, 55–124.
Gammon, P., James, N.P. and Pisera, A. 2000. Eocene spiculites and spongolites in southwestern Australia: Not deep, not polar, but shallow and warm. Geology, 28, 855–858.
Gasse, W., Göecke, R. and Hilpert, K. H. 1991. The hexactinellid sponge genus Becksia Schlüter, 1868 from the Campanian of the NW Münsterland (Upper Cretaceous, NW Germany). In: J. Reitner and H. Keupp (Eds), Fossil and Recent Sponges, pp. 21–35. Springer Verlag; Berlin.
Golonka, J. and Rajchel, J. 1972. Upper Cretaceous stromatolites in the vicinity of Cracow. Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 16, 652–667. In Polish with English summary
Haq, B.W., Hardenbol, J. and Vail P.R. 1988. Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea-level changes. In: C.K. Wilgus, B.S. Hastings, H. Posamentier, J. Van Wagoner, C.A. Ross and G.S.C. Kendall (Eds), Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication, 42, 71–108.
Helm, C. and Kosma, R. 2006. Reconstruction of the Late Cretaceous hexactinellid sponge Aphrocallistes alveolites (Roemer, 1841). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 80, 22–33.
Hèrenger, L. 1942. Contribution a l’étude des Spongiaires du Jurassique et du Crétacé de Catalogne. Travaux du Laboratoire de Géologie. Faculté des Sciences de l’Université de Grenoble, 23, 143–192.
Hurcewicz, H. 1968. Siliceous sponges from the upper Cretaceous of Poland; Part II, Monaxonia and Triaxonia. Acta Palaeonologica Polonica, 13, 3–96.
Ijima, I. 1927. The Hexactinellida of the Siboga Expedition. Siboga-Expeditie, 6, 383 pp. Leiden.
Jablonski, D. 2005. Evolutionary innovations in the fossil record: The intersection of ecology, development and macroevolution. Journal of Experimental Zoology. Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 304B, 1–19.
Jarvis, I. 2006. The Santonian-Campanian phosphatic chalks of England and France. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 117, 219–237.
Jarvis, I., Burnett, W.C., Nathan,Y., Almbaydin, F.S.M., Attia, A.K.M., Castro, L.N., Flicoteaux, R., Hilmy, M.E., Husain, V., Qutawnah, A.A., Serjani, A. and Zanin, Y.N. 1994. Posphorite geochemisty: State-of-the-art and environmental concerns. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 87 (3), 643–700.
Jasionowski, M. 1995. A Cretaceous non-depositional surface in the Kraków Upland (Mydlniki, Zabierzów): burrows, borings and stromatolites. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 65, 63–77.
Jurewicz, E., Hercman, H. and Nejbert, K. 2007. Flowstonelike calcite in the andesite of Jarmuta Mt. – dating the Holocene tectonic activity in the vicinity of Szczawnica (Magura Nappe, Outher Carpathians, Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica, 57, 187–204.
Kaziuk, H. 1978. Geologiczna mapa Polski 1: 200000; Kraków, B – Mapa bez utworów czwartorzędowych. Wydawnictwa Geologiczne. Warszawa.
Kennedy, W.J. and Garrison, R.E. 1975.Morphology and genesis of nodular phosphates in the Cenomanian glauconitic marl of south-east England. Lethaia, 8, 339–360.
Khmilevsky, Z.I. 1974. Cretaceous Aphrocallistidae (Porifera) of west Podolien. Paleontologicheskii Sbornik, 10, 36–41. In Russian with English summary
Koltun, V.M. 1967. Hyalospongiae or Hexactinellidae from North and Far-East seas of the USSR, 1–124. Nauka; Leningrad. In Russian
Koltun, V.M. 1970. Sponges of the Arctic and Antarctic; a faunistic review. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 25, 285–297.
Krajewski, K.P., Leśniak, P.M., Łącka, B. and Zawidzki, P. 2000. Origin of phosphatic stromatolites in theUpper Cretaceous condensed sequence of the Polish Jura Chain. Sedimentary Geology, 136, 89–112.
Krajewski, K.P., Van Cappellen, P., Trichet, J., Kuhn, O., Lucas, J., Martín-Alcarra, A., Prévôt, L., Tewari, V.C., Gaspar, L., Knight, R.I. and Lamboy, M. 1994. Biological processes and apatite formation in sedimentary environments. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 87, 701–745.
Krautter, M. 1997. Aspekte zur Paläökologie postpaläozoischer Kieselschwämme. Profil, 11, 199–324.
Krautter, M. 1998. Ecology of siliceous sponges – application to the environmental interpretation of the Upper Jurassic sponge facies (Oxfordian) from Spain. Cuadernos de Geologia Iberica. 24, 223–239.
Krautter, M. 2002. Fossil Hexactinellida. In: J.N.A. Hooper and R.W.M. Van Soest (Eds), Systema Porifera, pp. 1211–1223. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press; New York.
Krautter, M., Conway, K.W. and Barrie, J.V. 2006. Recent hexactinosidian sponge reefs (silicatemounds) off British Columbia, Canada: Frame-building processes. Journal of Paleontology, 80, 38–48.
Kudrewicz, R. 1992. The endemic echinoids Micraster (Micraster) malecki Mączyńska, 1979 from Santonian deposits of Korzkiew near Cracow (southern Poland), their ecology, taphonomy and evolutionary position. Acta Geologica Polonica, 42, 123–134.
Lagneau-Hèrenger, L. 1962. Contribution a l’étude des spongiaires siliceux du Crétacéinférieur. Mémoire de la Société Géologique de France, Nouvelle Série 41, 95, 1–252.
Leys, S.P., Wilson, K., Holeton, C., Reiswig, H.M., Austin, W.C. and Tunniclif, V. 2004. Patterns of glass sponge (Porifera, Hexactinellida) distribution in costal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 283, 133–149.
Lévi, C. and Lévi, P. 1988. Nouveaux Spongiaires lithistides bathyaux à affinitiés crétacées de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Bulletin Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Paris, série 4, 10 (A2), 241–263.
Machaniec, E. and Zapałowicz-Bilan, B. 2005. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleobathymetry of Senonian marls (Upper Cretaceous) in the vinicity of Kraków (Januszowice-Korzkiew area, Bonarka quarry) – preliminary study. Studia Geologica Polonica, 124, 285–295.
Małecki, J. 1980. Santonian siliceous sponges from Korzkiew near Kraków (Poland). Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 50 (3-4), 409–431.
Marcinowski, R. 1974. The transgressive Cretaceous (Upper Albian through Turonian) deposits on the Polish Jura Chain. Acta Geologica Polonica, 24 (1), 117–217.
Marcinowski, R. and Radwański, A. 1983. The Mid-Cretaceous transgression onto the Central Polish Uplands (marginal part of the Central European Basin). Zitteliana, 10, 65–95.
Marcinowski, R. and Radwański, A. 1989. A biostratigaphic approach to the mid-Cretaceous transgressive sequence of the Central Polish Uplands. Cretaceous Research, 10 (2), 153–172.
Marcinowski, R. and Radwański, A. 2009. A unique habitat of endolithic biota: Seism-included limestone rubble in Albian sandmass of the Cracow Upland, southern Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 59 (4), 505-521
Marcinowski, R. and Szulczewski, M. 1972. Condensed Cretaceous sequence with stromatolites in the Polish Jura Chain. Acta Geologica Polonica, 22, 515–538.
Matyszkiewicz, J, Krajewski, M. and Kędzierski, J. 2006a. Origin and evolution of un Upper Jurassic complex of carbonate buildups from Zegarowice Rocks (Kraków-Wieluń Upland, Poland). Facies, 52, 249–263.
Matyszkiewicz, J., Krajewski, M. and Żaba, J. 2006b. Structural control on the distribution of Upper Jurassic carbonate buildups in the Kraków-Wieluń Upland (south Poland). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte, 3, 182–192.
Matyszkiewicz, J., Świąder, J. and Żaba, J. 2007. Przejawy późnojurajskiej tektoniki synsedymentacyjnej w rejonie Kamienia. Tomy Jurajskie, 4, 63–70.
McClintock, J.B., Amsler, C.D., Baker, B.J. and van Soest, R.W.M. 2005. Ecology of Antarctic Marine Sponges. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 45 (2), 359–368.
Messing, C.G., Neumann, A.C. and Lang, J.C. 1990. Biozonation of deep-water lithoherms and associated hardgrounds in the northeastern Straits of Florida. Palaois, 5, 5–33.
Nestler, H. 1961. Spongien aus der weissen Schreibkreide (unt.Maastricht) der Insel Rügen (Ostsee). Paläontologische Abhandlungen, 1, 1–70.
Neuweiler, F., Daoust, I., Bourque, P.-A. and Burdige, D.J. 2007. Degradative calcification of a modern siliceous sponge from the Great Bahama Bank, the Bahamas: a guide for interpretation of ancient sponge-baring limestones. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 77 (7), 552–563.
Ogg, J.G., Ogg, G., and Gradstein, F.M. 2008. The Concise Geologic Time Scale, pp. 1–177. Cambrige University Press; Cambrige.
O’Brien, G.W., Milnes, A.R., Veeh, H.H, Heggie, D.T., Riggs, S.R., Cullen, D.J., Marshall J.F. and Cook, P.J. 1990. Sedimentation dynamic and redox iron-cycling: controlling factors for the apatite-glauconite association on the East Australian continental margin. In: A.J.G. Notholt and I. Jarvis (Eds), Phosphorite Research and Development, Geological Society Special Publication, 52, 61–86. The Geological Society; London.
Olszewska-Nejbert, D. 2004. Development of the Turonian/Coniacian hardground boundary in the Cracow Swell area (Wielkanoc quarry, Southern Poland). Geological Quarterly, 48 (2), 159–168.
Olszewska-Nejbert, D. 2005. Development of the Turonian Conulus Lagerstätte in the Wielkanoc Quarry (South Poland). Annales SocietatisGeologorumPoloniae, 75 (3), 199–210.
Olszewska-Nejbert, D. 2007. Late Cretaceous (Turonian – Coniacian) irregular echinoids of western Kazakhstan (Mangyshlak) and Poland (Opole). Acta Geologica Polonica, 57 (1), 1–87.
Panow, E. 1934. Sur la stratigraphie du crétacé des environs de Cracovie – note préliminaire. Annales de la Société Géologique de Pologne, 10, 577–585.
Pisera, A. 1997. Upper Jurassic siliceous sponges from the Swabian Alb: taxonomy and paleoecology. Palaeontologia Polonica, 57, 1–216.
Pisera, A., Martínez, M. and Santos, H. 2006. Late Cretaceous siliceous sponges from El Rayo Formation, Puerto Rico. Journal of Paleontology, 80 (3), 594–600.
Reid, R.E.H. 1962. Relationships of fauna and substratum in the paleoecology of the Chalk and Chalk Rock. Nature, 194, 276–277.
Reid, R.E.H. 1968a. Hexactinellid faunas in the Chalk of England and Ireland. Geological Magazine, 105, 15–22.
Reid, R.E.H. 1968b. Bathymetric distribution of Calcarea and Hexactinellida in the present and past. Geological Magazine, 105, 546–559.
Reiswig, H.M. 1990. In situ feeding in two shallow-water hexactinellid sponges. In: K. Rützler (Ed.), New Perspectives in Sponge biology, pp. 504–510. Smithsonian Institution Press; Washington.
Reiswig, H.M. 2002. Family Aphrocallistidae Gray, 1867. In: J.N.A Hooper and R.W.M. van Soest (Eds), Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges, pp. 1282–1286. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press; New York, NY (USA).
Remin, Z. 2004. Biostratigraphy of the Santonian in the SW margin of the Holy Cross Mountains near Lipnik, a potential reference secion for extra-Carpathian Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 54 (4), 587–596.
Rigby, J.K. and Jenkins, D.E. 1983. The Tertiary sponges Aphrocallistes and Eurete from Western Washington and Oregon. Contributions to Science, 344, 1–13.
Rigby, J. K., Chin, K., Bloch, J.D. and Tweet, J.S. 2007. A new hexactinellid sponge from the Cretaceous of Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 44 (9), 1235–1242.
Różycki, S.Z. 1938. Stratigraphie und Tektonik der Kreideablagerungen der Umgebung von Lelów (südöstlisch von Częstochowa). Sprawozdania Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 9 (2), 127–176.
Rutkowski, J. 1965. Senonian in the area of Miechów, southern Poland. Rocznik Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, 35 (1), 3–53.
Schrammen, A. 1910–1912. Die Kieselspongien der oberen Kreide von Nordwestdeutschland. I. Tetraxonia, Monaxonia und Silicea incertae sedis. II. Triaxonia (Hexactinellida). Palaeontographica, Supplement 5, 1–385.
Sinzov, I. 1871-72. On the Jurassic and Cretaceous fossils of the Saratov Gubernya. Materialy dla Geologii Rossii, 4, 40–64. In Russian
Soest, R.W.M. van and Stentoft, N. 1988. Barbados deepwater sponges. Studies on the fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands, 70, 1–175.
Sujkowski, Z. 1926. Sur le Jurassique, le Crétacé et le Quaternaire des environs de Wolbrom. Sprawozdania Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 3 (3-4), 382–434.
Świerczewska-Gładysz, E. 1997. Pochodzenie i obszar źródłowy warstwy margla glaukonitowego z gąbkami w Korzkwi (okolice Krakowa, santon). In: J. Wojewoda (Ed.), Obszary Źródłowe: Zapis w Osadach, pp. 53–64. Wrocław. In Polish with English summary
Świerczewska-Gładysz, E. 2006. Late Cretaceous siliceous sponges from the Middle Vistula River Valley (Central Poland) and their palaeoecological significance. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 76 (3), 227–296.
Świerczewska-Gładysz, E. and Olszewska-Nejbert, D. 2006. The origin of phosphatized sponges from the Danian glauconitic sandstone from Nasiłów (central Poland, Vistula River valley). Przegląd Geologiczny, 54 (8), 710–719. In Polish with English summary
Tabachnick, K.R. 1988. Hexactinellid sponges from mountains of west Pacific. In: A.P. Kuznetsov, and M.N. Sokolova (Eds), Structural and functional researches of the marine benthos, 49–64.Moscov. In Russian
Tarkowski, R. 1991. Stratigraphy, macrofossils and palaeogeography of the Upper Cretaceous from the Opole Trough. Zeszyty Naukowe AGH, 51, 3–156. In Polish with English summary
Termier, G. and Termier, H. 1981. Spongiaires du Crétacé Moyen. Cretaceous Research, 2, 427–433.
Trappe, J. 1998. Phanerozoic phosphorite depositional systems: a dynamic model for a sedimentary resource system. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, 76, 1–316.
Ulbrich, H. 1974. Die Spongien der Ilsenburg-Entwicklung (Oberes Unter-Campan) der Subherzynen Kreidemulde. Freiberger Forschungshefte, C (291), 1–121.
Vacelet, J. 1969. Éponges de la roche du large et de l’étage bathal de Méditerranée. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Ser. A, 59: 145–219.
Vodrážka, R., Sklenář, J., Čech, S., Laurin, J. and Hradecká L. 2009. Phosphatic intraclasts in the shallow-water hemipelagic strata: a source of palaeoecological, taphonomic and biostratigraphic data (Upper Turonian, Bohemian Cretaceous Basin). Cretaceous Research, 30, 204–222.
Wagner, W. 1963. Die Schwammfauna der Oberkreide von Neuburg (Donau). Palaeontographica, Abteilung A, 122, 166–248.
Walaszczyk, I. 1992. Turonian through Santonian deposits of the Central Polish Uplands; their facies development, inoceramid paleontology and stratigraphy. Acta Geologica Polonica, 42 (1-2), 1–122.
Walaszczyk, I. 2000. Inoceramid bivalves at the Turonian/Coniacian boundary: biostratigraphy, events, and diversity trends. Acta Geologica Polonica, 50 (4), 421–430.
Walaszczyk, I. and Wood, C.J. 1998. Inoceramid and biostratigraphy at the Turonian/Coniacian boundary; based on the Salzgitter-Salder Quarry, Lower Saxony, Germany, and the Słupia Nadbrzeżna section, Central Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 48 (4), 395–434.
Walaszczyk, I. and Wood, C.J. 1999. Inoceramid stratigraphy. In: B. Niebuhr, R. Baldschuhn, G. Ernst, I. Walaszczyk, W. Weiss and C.J. Wood. The Upper Cretaceous succession (Cenomanian – Santonian) of the Staffhorst Shaft, Lower Saxony, northern Germany: intergrated biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic and downhole geophysical log data, Acta Geologica Polonica, 49 (3), 184–191.
Wilby, P.R. and Briggs, D.E.G. 1997. Taxonomic trends in the resolution of detail preserved in fossil phosphatized soft tissues. Geobios, 20, 493–502.
Yahel, G., Whitney, F., Reiswig, H.M., Eerkes-Medrano, D.I. and Lays, S.P. 2007. In situ feeding and metabolism of glass sponges (Hexactinellida, Porifera) studied in a deep temperate fjord with a remotely operated submersible. Limnology and Oceanography, 52 (1), 428–440.
Ziółkowski, P. 2007. Stratygrafia i zróżnicowanie facjalne górnej jury wschodniej części Wyżyny Krakowskiej. Tomy Jurajskie, 4, 25–38.
Żaba, J. 1999. The structural evolution of Lower Palaeozoic succession in the Upper Silesia Block and Małopolska Block border zone (southern Poland). Prace Państwowego InstytutuGeologicznego, 166, 1–162. In Polishwith English summary
Cytuj : Żylińska, A. ,Radwański, A. ,Olszewska-Nejbert, D. , The phosphatized sponges from the Santonian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Wielkanoc Quarry (southern Poland) as a tool in stratigraphical and environmental studies. Acta Geologica Polonica Vol. 59, no. 4/2009