Journal : Acta Geologica Polonica
Article : Trilobite and acritarch assemblages from the Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary interval in the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland)

Authors :
Żylińska, A.
Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, ul. Żwirki i Wigury 93, PL-02-089 Warsaw, Poland, anna.zylinska@uw.edu.pl,
Abstract : Integrated analysis of trilobite and acritarch assemblages across the traditional Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary in the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) has documented the development of both groups in this interval. Trilobite assemblages, comprising 31 taxa (13 are revised herein) dominated by the Ellipsocephalidae, change from the protolenoid-dominated in the Lower Cambrian to the kingaspidoid-ornamentaspidoid-dominated in the Middle Cambrian, and correlate well with the Agdzian Stage of West Gondwana (Geyer and Landing 2004). Correspondence to West Gondwana and Avalonia is also evident from the presence of the associated trilobite genera, Palaeolenus, Myopsolenites, Latikingaspis, Kingaspis, Latoucheia and Orodes. The acritarch assemblages, comprising 77 taxa, indicate that their main taxonomic turnover was gradual and preceded the earliest occurrence of Paradoxides spp., as in the Spanish sections. The geological succession studied in the HCM represents part of the Cambrian strata that are generally missing in Baltica.

Keywords : Góry Świętokrzyskie, kambr dolny, kambr środkowy, Polska, stratygrafia, Trylobity, Acritarcha, Cambrian Series 2 and 3, Holy Cross Mountains, Lower Cambrian, Middle Cambrian, Poland, Stratigraphy, Trilobita,
Publishing house : Faculty of Geology of the University of Warsaw
Publication date : 2009
Number : Vol. 59, no. 4
Page : 413 – 458

Bibliography
: Ahlberg, P. 1979. Early Cambrian trilobites fromMount Luopakte, northern Sweden. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, ser. C, 765, 3–12.
Ahlberg, P. 1984. A Lower Cambrian trilobite fauna from Jämtland, central Scandinavian Caledonides. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 105, 349–361.
Ahlberg, P. and Bergström, J. 1978. Lower Cambrian ptychopariid trilobites from Scandinavia. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, ser. Ca, 49, 5–41.
Ahlberg, P. and Bergström, J. 1993. The trilobite Calodiscus lobatus from the Lower Cambrian of Scania, Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 115, 331–334.
Albani, R., Massa, D. and Tongiorgi, M. 1991. Palynostratigraphy (Acritarchs) from some Cambrian Beds from the Rhadames (Ghadamis) Basin (Western Libya–Southern Tunisia). Bolletino della Societá Paleontologica Italiana, 30, 255–280.
Axheimer, N. and Ahlberg, P. 2003. A core drilling through Cambrian strata at Almbacken, Scania, S. Sweden: trilobites and stratigraphical assessment. GFF, 125, 139–156.
Axheimer, N., Ahlberg, P. and Cederström, P. 2007. A new lower Cambrian eodiscoid trilobite fauna from Swedish Lapland and its implications for intercontinental correlation. Geological Magazine, 144, 953–961.
Babcock, L.E. and Peng, S.C. 2007. Cambrian chronostratigraphy: current state and future plans. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 254, 62–66.
Babcock, L.E., Peng, S.C., Geyer, G. and Shergold, J.H. 2005. Changing perspectives on Cambrian chronostratigraphy and progress toward subdivision of the Cambrian System. Geosciences Journal, 9, 101–106.
Babcock, L.E., Robison, R.A., Rees, M.N., Peng, S.C. and Saltzman, M.R. 2007. The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Drumian Stage (Cambrian) in the Drum Mountains, Utah, USA. Episodes, 30, 85–95.
Bagnoli, G., Stouge, S. and Tongiorgi, M. 1988. Acritarchs and conodonts from the Cambrian–Ordovician Furuhäll (Köpingsklint) section (Öland, Sweden). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 94, 163–248.
Bednarczyk, W. 1970. Trilobites Fauna sic of the Lower Paradoxides oelandicus Stage from the BrzechówArea in the Western Part of the Świętokrzyskie Mts. Bulletin de l’Academie Polonaise des Sciences, Série des Sciences Géologiques et Géographiques, 18, 29–35.
Bednarczyk, W., Jurkiewicz, H. and Orłowski, S. 1965. Lower Cambrian and its fauna from the Boring of Zaręby near Łagów (Holy CrossMts). Bulletin de l’Academie Polonaise des Sciences, Série des Sciences Géologiques et Géographiques, 13, 231–236.
Bednarczyk, W., Kowalczewski, Z., Studencki, M. and Tomczyk, H. 1981. Stop 1. The Chojnów Dół Ravine in Kądziorka. In: H. Żakowa (Ed.), Przewodnik 53 Zjazdu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, pp. 134–139. In Polish
Belka, Z., Ahrendt, H., Franke, W. and Wemmer, K. 2000. The Baltica–Gondwana suture in central Europe: evidence from K–Ar ages of detrital muscovites and biogeographical data. In:W. Franke,V. Haak, O. Oncken and D. Tanner (Eds), Orogenic Processes: Quantification and Modelling in the Variscan Belt. Special Publications of the Geological Society of London, 179, 87–102.
Belka, Z., Valverde-Vaquero, P., Dörr, W., Ahrendt, H., Wemmer, K., Franke, W. and Schäfer, J. 2002.Accretion of first Gondwana-derived terranes at the margin of Baltica. In: J.A. Winchester, T.C. Pharaoh and J. Verniers (Eds), Palaeozoic Amalgamation of Central Europe. Special Publications of the Geological Society of London, 201, 19–36.
Bergström, J. and Ahlberg, P. 1981. Uppermost Lower Cambrian biostratigraphy in Scania, Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 103, 193–214.
Bergström, J. and Gee, D.G. 1985. The Cambrian in Scandinavia. In: D.E. Gee and B.A. Sturt (Eds), The Caledonide Orogen – Scandinavia and Related Areas, JohnWiley & Sons Ltd., London, 247–271.
Berthelsen, A. 1992. From Precambrian to Variscan Europe. In: D. Blundell, R. Freeman and S. Muller (Eds),A Continent Revealed: The European Geotraverse, Cambridge University Press, 153–164.
Brøgger, W.C. 1878. Om Paradoxidesskiferne ved Krekling. Nyt Magazin Naturvidenskap, 24, 18–88
Cobbold, E.S. 1910. On some small trilobites from the Cambrian rocks of Comley (Shropshire). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 66, 19–51.
Cobbold, E.S. 1927. The stratigraphy and geological structure of the Cambrian area of Comley (Shropshire). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 83, 551–573.
Cobbold, E.S. 1931. Additional fossils from the Cambrian rocks of Comley, Shropshire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 87, 459–512.
Cocks, L. R. M. 2002. Key Lower Palaeozoic faunas from near the Trans-European Suture Zone. In: J.A. Winchester, T.C. Pharaoh and J. Verniers (Eds), Palaeozoic Amalgamation of Central Europe. Special Publications of the Geological Society of London, 201, 37–46.
Czarnocki, J. 1919. Stratigraphy and tectonics of the Święty Krzyż Mountains. Prace Towarzystwa Naukowego Warszawskiego, 28, 1–172. In Polish
Czarnocki, J. 1927. The Cambrian and its fauna in the central part of the Holy Cross Mountains. Sprawozdania Polskiego Instytutu Geologicznego, 4, 189–207. In Polish
Czarnocki, J. 1933. The scientific significance of Cambrian exposures in the vicinity of Ociesęki and Orłowiny. Zabytki Przyrody Nieożywionej, 2, 78–84. In Polish
Czarnocki, J. 1939. Report on field studies conducted in the Holy Cross Mountains in 1938. Biuletyn Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 15, 1–41. In Polish
Dies, M.E., Gozalo, R. and Liñán, E. 2001. Protolenus (Hupeolenus) Geyer, 1990 (Trilobita) en el Bilbiliense (Cámbrico Inferior) de Jarque (Zaragoza, Cadenas Ibéricas). In: G. Meléndez, Z. Herrera, G. Delvene and B. Azanza (Eds), Los fósiles y la paleogeografía. Publicaciones del Seminario de Paleontología de Zaragoza, 5.1, 301–309.
Dies Álvarez, M.E. and Gozalo, R. 2006. El género Hamatolenus Hupé, 1953 (Cámbrico Inferior–Medio) en Murero y áreas adyacentes de las Cadenas Ibéricas (NE de España). Revista Española de Paleontología, 21, 61–78.
Dies Álvarez, M.E., Liñán, E. and Gozalo, R. 2007. The Cambrian genus Onaraspis Öpik, 1968 (Trilobita), in Spain. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 34, 419–429.
Downie, C. 1982. Lower Cambrian acritarchs from Scotland, Norway, Greenland and Canada. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 72, 257–282.
Dzik, J. and Orłowski, S. 1995. Primitive ctenocystoid echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Poland. Annales de Paléontologie, 81, 17–35.
Eisenack, A. 1938. Hystrichosphaerideen und verwandte Formen im baltischen Silur. Zeitschrift für Geschiebeforschung und Flachlandsgeologie, 14, 1–30.
Eisenack, A. 1965. Die Mikrofauna der Ostseekalke. 1. Chitinozoen, Hystrichosphären. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 123, 115–148.
Eklund, C. 1990. Lower Cambrian acritarch stratigraphy of the Barstad 2 core, Östergötland, Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 112, 19–44.
Erkmen, U. and Bozdoğan, N. 1981. Cambrian acritarchs from the Sosnik Formation in southeast Turkey. Revista Española de Micropaleontología, 13, 47–60.
Fensome, R.A., Williams, G.L., Barss, M.S., Freeman, J.M. and Hill, J.M. 1990. Acritarchs and fossil prasinophytes: an index to genera, species and intraspecific taxa. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, Contributions Series, 25, pp. 1−771.
Fletcher, T.P. 2003. Ovatoryctocara granulata: the key to a global Cambrian stage boundary and the correlation of the olenellid, redlichiid and paradoxidid realms. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 70, 73–102.
Fletcher, T.P. 2006. Bedrock geology of the Cape St. Mary’s Peninsula, southwest Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, St. John’s, Report, 06-02, pp. 1–117.
Fombella, M. 1977.Acritarcos de edad CámbricoMedio–Inferior de la provincia de Leon, España. Revista Española de Micropaleontología, 9, 115–124.
Fombella, M. 1978. Acritarcos de la Formacion Oville, edad Cámbrico Medio–Tremadoc, Provincia de Leon, España. Palinología, Num. extraord., 1, 245–261.
Fombella, M. 1979. Palinologia de la Formacion Oville al Norte y Sur de la Cordillera Cantábrica, España. Palinología, 1, 1–15.
Fridrichsone, A.I. 1971. Acritarchs Baltisphaeridium and histrichosphaeres (?) from the Cambrian deposits in Latvia. In: Paleontologiya i Stratigrafiya Pribaltiki i Belorusii, 3, 5–22. In Russian
Geyer, G. 1988. Agnostida aus dem höheren Unterkambrium und dem Mittelkambrium von Marokko. Teil 2: Eodiscina. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 177, 93–133.
Geyer, G. 1990a. Revised Lower to lower Middle Cambrian biostratigraphy of Morocco. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 22, 53–70.
Geyer, G. 1990b. Die marokkanischen Ellipsocephalidae (Trilobita: Redlichiida). Beringeria, 3, 3–363.
Geyer, G. 1994. Cambrian corynexochid trilobites from Morocco. Journal of Paleontology, 68, 1306–1320.
Geyer, G. 2005. The base of a revised Middle Cambrian: are suitable concepts for a series boundary in reach? Geosciences Journal, 9, 81–99.
Geyer, G. 2006. First African oryctocephalid trilobites from the Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary interval. Palaeoworld, 15, 348–359.
Geyer, G. and Elicki, O. 1995. The Lower Cambrian trilobites from the Görlitz Synclinorium (Germany) – review and new results. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 69, 87–119.
Geyer, G., Elicki, O., Fatka, O. and Żylińska, A. 2008. Cambrian. In: T. McCann (Ed.), The Geology of Central Europe, vol. 1. Precambrian and Palaeozoic, Geological Society of London, 155–202.
Geyer, G. and Landing, E. 2001. Middle Cambrian of Avalonian Massachusetts: stratigraphy and correlation of the Braintree trilobites. Journal of Paleontology, 75, 116–135.
Geyer, G. and Landing, E. 2004. A unified Lower–Middle Cambrian chronostratigraphy for West Gondwana. Acta Geologica Polonica, 54, 179–219.
Geyer, G. and Landing, E. 2006. Latest Ediacaran and Cambrian of the Moroccan Atlas regions. In: G. Geyer and E. Landing (Eds), Morocco 2006, Ediacaran–Cambrian depositional environments and stratigraphy of the western Atlas regions. Explanatory description and field guide. Beringeria Special Issue, 6, 7–46.
Geyer, G. and Palmer, A.R. 1995. Neltneriidae and Holmiidae (Trilobita) from Morocco and the problem of Early Cambrian intercontinental correlation. Journal of Paleontology, 69, 459–474.
Geyer, G. and Shergold, J. 2000. The quest for internationally recognized divisions of Cambrian time. Episodes, 23, 188–195.
Górka, H. 1969. Microorganismes de l’ordovicien de Pologne. Palaeontologia Polonica, 22, 1–102.
Hagenfeldt, S.E. 1989a. Lower Cambrian acritarchs from the Baltic Depression and south-central Sweden, taxonomy and biostratigraphy. Stockholm Contributions in Geology, 41, 1–176.
Hagenfeldt, S.E. 1989b. Middle Cambrian acritarchs from the Baltic Depression and south-central Sweden, taxonomy and biostratigraphy. Stockholm Contributions in Geology, 41, 177–250.
Henningsmoen, G. 1952. Early Middle Cambrian fauna from Rogaland, SW Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 30, 13–32.
Hupé, P. 1953. Contribution a l’étude du Cambrien inférieur et du Précambrien III de l’Anti-Atlas marocain. Notes et Mémoirs de la Service géologique duMaroc, 103, 1–402. ‘1952’
Jachowicz, M. and Buła, Z. 1996. The Lower Paleozoic sediments in the Upper Silesian Block. Geological Quarterly, 40, 299–336.
Jagielska, L. 1963. Preliminary results of microspore studies in the Bazów borehole. Geological Quarterly, 7, 736–737. In Polish
Jagielska, L. 1965. New data on the Eocambrian and lowermost Cambrian microflora in the Klimontów Anticlinorium. Geological Quarterly, 9, 499–509. In Polish
Jagielska, L. 1966. Microflora in Eocambrian and Lower Cambrian strata of eastern Poland. Geological Quarterly, 10, 251–261. In Polish
Jankauskas, T.V. and Lendzion, K. 1992. Lower and Middle Cambrian acritarch-based biozonation of the Baltic Syneclise and adjacent areas (East European Platform). Przegląd Geologiczny, 40, 519–525.
Jankauskas, T.V. and Lendzion, K. 1994. Biostratigraphic correlation of Lower and Middle Cambrian sections in the Baltic Syneclise and adjacent areas. Przegląd Geologiczny, 42, 365–370.
Jaworowski, K. and Sikorska, M. 2006. Łysogóry Unit (Central Poland) versus East European Craton – application of sedimentological data from Cambrian siliciclastic association. Geological Quarterly, 50, 77–86.
Jendryka-Fuglewicz, B. 1992. Comparative analysis of brachiopods from the Cambrian deposits of the Holy Cross Mountains and the Precambrian Platform in Poland. Przegląd Geologiczny, 40, 150–155. In Polish
Jurkiewicz, H. 1971. Deep geological structure of the Łagów area. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 242, 5–27. In Polish
Kaesler, R. L. (Ed.) 1997. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part O,Arthropoda 1, Trilobita, Revised, pp. i–xxiv, 1–530. Geological Society ofAmerica, Boulder, and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.
Kautsky, F. 1945. Die unterkambrische Fauna vom Aistjakk. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 67, 129–211.
King, W.B.R. 1923. Cambrian fossils from the Dead Sea. Geological Magazine, 60, 507–514.
Kiryanov, V.V. 1974. Acritrachs from the Cambrian deposits of Volhynia. Paleontologicheskij Zhurnal’, 8/2, 117–129. In Russian
Kobayashi, T. 1935. The Cambro–Ordovician Formations and Faunas of South Chosen. Palaeontology. Part III. Cambrian Fauna of South Chosen with a special study of the Cambrian Trilobite Genera and Families. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, section 2, 4, 49–344.
Kowalczewski, Z. 1990. Coarse-grained Cambrian rocks in central south Poland (lithostratigraphy, tectonics, paleogeography). Prace Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 131, 5–82. In Polish with English summary
Kowalczewski, Z., Kuleta, M. and Moczydłowska, M. 1987. New data on the Lower Cambrian near Kotuszów and Korytnica in the Holy Cross Mountains. Geological Quarterly, 31, 225–226. In Polish
Kowalczewski, Z., Kuleta, M., Lisik, R. and Moczydłowska, M. 1986. New data on the Cambrian and Lower Ordovician rocks in theWiśniówka area in theHoly CrossMountains. Geological Quarterly, 30, 201–228. In Polish with English summary
Kowalczewski, Z., Żylińska, A. and Szczepanik, Z. 2006. Cambrian in the Holy Cross Mountains. In: S. Skompski and A. Żylińska (Eds), Procesy i zdarzenia w historii geologicznej Gór Świętokrzyskich. 77 Zjazd Naukowy Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, pp. 14–27.Warszawa. In Polish
Krzywiec, P., Gutowski, J., Walaszczyk, I., Wróbel, G. and Wybraniec, S. 2009. Tectonostratigraphic model of the Late Cretaceous inversion along the Nowe Miasto–Zawichost Fault Zone, SE Mid-Polish Trough. Geological Quarterly, 53, 27–48.
Kutek, J. and Głazek, J. 1972. The Holy Cross area, Central Poland, in theAlpine cycle. Acta Geologica Polonica, 22, 603–652.
Landing, E. 1992. Lower Cambrian of Southeastern Newfoundland. Epeirogeny and Lazarus Faunas, Lithofacies–Biofacies Linkages, and the Myth of a Global Chronostratigraphy. In: J.H. Lipps and P.W. Signor (Eds), Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 283–309.
Landing, E., Geyer, G. and Heldmaier,W. 2006. Distinguishing eustatic and epeirogenic controls on Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary successions inWest Gondwana (Morocco and Spain). Sedimentology, 53, 899–918.
Lendzion, K. 1972. Lower Cambrian stratigraphy in the Podlasie area. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 233, 69–147. In Polish
Lendzion, K. 1976. Stratigraphy of the Cambrian in the western part of the Peri-Baltic Syneclise. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 270, 59–76. In Polish with English summary
Lendzion, K., Moczydłowska, M. and Żakowa, H. 1983. A new look at the Bazów Cambrian sequence (southern Holy Cross Mts.). Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Earth Sciences, 30, 67–75.
Liñán, E., Dies, M.E. and Gozalo, R. 2003. A review of the genus Kingaspis (Trilobita, Lower Cambrian) from Spain and its biostratigraphical consequences in the Mediterranean subprovince. Revista Española de Paleontología, 18, 3–14.
Liñán, E., Fernández-Nieto, C., Gámez, J.A., Gozalo, R., Mayoral, E., Moreno-Eiris, E., Palacios, T. and Perejón, A. 1993. Problemática del límite Cámbrico Inferior–Medio en Murero (Cadenas Ibéricas, España). Revista Española de Paleontología, no. extr., 26–39.
Liñán, E. and Gozalo, R. 1999. Nuevos trilobites del Cámbrico inferior deAragón. In: J.A. Gámez-Vintaned and E. Liñán (Eds), 25Años de Paleontología aragonesa. Homenaje al Profesor Leandro Sequeiros. Institución Fernando El Católico, Zaragoza, pp. 255–261.
Liñán, E. and Perejón, A. 1981. El Cámbrico inferior de la «Unidad deAlconera», Badajoz (SW de España). Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural (Geología), 79, 125–148.
Liñán, E., Sdzuy, K., Álvaro, J.J., Gámez-Vintaned, J.A. and Gozalo, R. 1996. The Jarque section: Lower and Middle Cambrian (WestAsturian–Leonese Zone, Eastern Iberian Chain). In: E. Liñán, J.A. Gámez-Vintaned and R. Gozalo (Eds), II Field Conference of the Cambrian Stage Subdivision Working Group, International Subcommission on Cambrian Stratigraphy, Spain, 13-21 September 1996. Field Trip Guide and Abstracts, 57–72.
Linnarsson, J.G.O. 1877. Om faunan i lagren med Paradoxides ölandicus. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 3, 352–375.
Malinowski, M., Żelaźniewicz, A., Grad, M., Guterch, A. and Janik, T. 2005. Seismic and geological structure of the crust in the transition from Baltica to Palaeozoic Europe in SE Poland – CELEBRATION 2000 experiment, profile CEL02. Tectonophysics, 401, 55–77.
Martin, F. and Dean, W.T. 1981.Middle and Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician acritarchs from Random Island, eastern Newfoundland. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Canada, 343, 1–43.
Martin, F. and Dean, W.T. 1984. Middle Cambrian acritarchs from the Chamberlains Brook and Manuels River formations at Random Island, eastern Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Canada, 84-1A, 429–440.
Martin, F. and Dean,W.T. 1988. Middle and Upper Cambrian acritarch and trilobite zonation at Manuels River and Random Island, eastern Newfoundland. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Canada, 381, 1–91.
Masiak, M. and Żylińska, A. 1994. Burgess Shale-type fossilsin Cambrian sandstones of the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 39, 329–340.
Matthew, G.F. 1892. Protolenus – a new genus of Cambrian trilobites. Bulletin of the Natural Historical Society of New Brunswick, 10, 34–37.
Matthew, G.F. 1895. The Protolenus fauna. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 14, 101–153.
McCollum, L.B. and Sundberg, F.A. 2002. Correlation of the Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary interval in the Circum-Pacific region based on oryctocephalid trilobites. First International Palaeontological Congress (Abstracts), Geological Society of Australia, 68, 242–243.
Michniak, R. 1959. Notes on the petrography and micropaleophytology in the oldest strata of the Holy Cross Mts. Bulletin de l’Academie Polonaise des Sciences, Série des Sciences Chimiques, Géologiques et Géographiques, 7, 457–462.
Moczydłowska, M. 1980. Results of acritarch studies in the Cambrian deposits of the Okuniew IG-1 borehole. Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 24, 397–398. In Polish
Moczydłowska, M. 1981. Lower and Middle Cambrian acritarchs from northeastern Poland. Precambrian Research, 15, 63–74.
Moczydłowska, M. 1989. Upper Proterozoic and Lower Cambrian acritarchs from Poland – micropaleontology, biostratigraphy and thermal study. Lund Publications in Geology, 75, 1–30.
Moczydłowska, M. 1991. Acritarch biostratigraphy of the Lower Cambrian and the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary in southeastern Poland. Fossils and Strata, 29, 1–127.
Moczydłowska, M. 1998. Cambrian acritarchs from Upper Silesia, Poland – biochronology and tectonic implications. Fossils and Strata, 48, 1–121.
Moczydłowska, M. 1999. The Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary recognized by acritarchs in Baltica and at the margin of Gondwana. Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 38, 207–225.
Moczydłowska, M. and Crimes, T.P. 1995. Late Cambrian acritarchs and their age constraints on an Ediacaran-type fauna from the Booley Bay Formation, Co. Wexford (Eire). Geological Journal, 30, 111–128.
Moczydłowska, M. and Vidal, G. 1986. Lower Cambrian acritarch zonation in southern Scandinavia and southeastern Poland. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 108, 201–223.
Moczydłowska, M. and Vidal, G. 1988. Early Cambrian acritarchs from Scandinavia and Poland. Palynology, 12, 1–10.
Moczydłowska, M. and Vidal, G. 1992. Phytoplankton from the Lower Cambrian Læsa Formation on Bornholm, Denmark; biostratigraphy and palaeoenvironmental constraints. Geological Magazine, 129, 17–40.
Moczydłowska, M. and Zang, W.L. 2006. The Early Cambrian acritarch Skiagia and its significance for global correlation. Palaeoworld, 15, 328–337.
Nawrocki, J., Dunlap, J., Pecskay, Z., Krzemiński, L., Żylińska, A., Fanning, M., Kozłowski, K., Salwa, S., Szczepanik, Z. and Trela, W. 2007. Late Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic palaeogeography of the Holy Cross Mountains (Central Europe): an integrated approach. Journal of the Geological Society, 164, 405–423.
Nawrocki, J. and Poprawa, P. 2006. Development of Trans-European Suture Zone in Poland: from Ediacaran rifting to Early Palaeozoic accretion. Geological Quarterly, 50, 59–76.
Neltner, L. 1938. Etudes géologiques dans le Sud marocain (Haut Atlas et Anti-Atlas). Notes et Mémoirs de la Service des Mines et Carte géologique du Maroc, 42, 1–298.
Nielsen, A.T. and Schovsbo, N.H. 2006. Cambrian to basal Ordovician lithostratigraphy in southern Scandinavia. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, 53, 47–92.
Orłowski, S. 1959a. Paradoxidae from lower Middle Cambrian strata in the vicinity of Sandomierz (Central Poland). Bulletin de l’Académie Polonaise des Sciences, Série des Sciences Chimiques, Géologiques et Géographiques, 7, 441–446.
Orłowski, S. 1959b. Ellipsocephalidae from the lower beds of the Middle Cambrian in the vicinity of Sandomierz (Central Poland). Bulletin de l’Académie Polonaise des Sciences, Série des Sciences Chimiques, Géologiques et Géographiques, 7, 515–520.
Orłowski, S. 1964. Middle Cambrian and its fauna in the eastern part of the Holy Cross Mountains. Studia Geologica Polonica, 16, 7–94. In Polish with English summary
Orłowski, S. 1965.Arevision of the Middle Cambrian fauna from the Słowiec Hill (Holy Cross Mountains). Biuletyn Geologiczny Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 6, 134–146.
Orłowski, S. 1971. The Middle Cambrian of the Klimontów anticlinorium, Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica, 21, 349–358.
Orłowski, S. 1975a. The systematic position and ontogeny of the Lower Cambrian trilobite species Ellipsocephalus sanctacrucensis (Samsonowicz, 1959). Acta Geologica Polonica, 25, 369–375.
Orłowski, S. 1975b. Cambrian and Upper Precambrian lithostratigraphic units in the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica, 25, 431–448. In Polish with English summary
Orłowski, S. 1985a. Lower Cambrian and its trilobites in the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica, 35, 231–250.
Orłowski, S. 1985b. New data on the Middle Cambrian trilobites and stratigraphy in the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geologica Polonica, 35, 251–263.
Orłowski, S. 1987. Stratigraphy of the Lower Cambrian in the Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Earth Sciences, 35, 91–96.
Orłowski, S. 1988. Stratigraphy of the Cambrian System in the Holy Cross Mts. Geological Quarterly, 32, 525–532.
Orłowski, S. 1992. Cambrian stratigraphy and stage subdivision in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Geological Magazine, 129, 471–474.
Orłowski, S. and Mizerski, W. 1995. New data on geology of the Middle Cambrian rocks in the KlimontówAnticlinorium (Holy Cross Mts.). Geological Quarterly, 39, 293–306.
Pacześna, J. (Ed.) 2008. Łopiennik IG 1. Profile Głębokich Otworów Wiertniczych Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 123, pp. 1–265. In Polish
Pajchlowa, M. (Ed.) 1990. Atlas of guide and characteristic fossils, Geology of Poland, III, 1a, Older Palaeozoic (with Upper Proterozoic), pp. 1–493. In Polish, English version published in 1991
Palacios, T., Jensen, S. and Apalategui, O. 2006. Acritarch biostratigraphy from the Upper Lower Cambrian–Middle Cambrian of the Northern Margin of Gondwana (Ossa–Morena Zone, Southwest Iberia). In: J. Bek, R. Brocke, J. Dašková and O. Fatka (Eds), CIMP General Meeting in Prague 2006. Palaeozoic palynology in space and time, 40–42.
Palacios, T. and Moczydłowska, M. 1998. Acritarch biostratigraphy of the Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary in the Iberian chains, province of Soria, northeastern Spain. Revista Española de Paleontología, no. extr., Homenaje al Prof. Gonzalo Vidal, 65–82.
Palacios, T. and Vidal, G. 1992. Lower Cambrian acritarchs from northern Spain; the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary and its biostratigraphic implications. Geological Magazine, 129, 421–436.
Palmer, A.R. and James, N.P. 1980. The Hawke Bay event: a circum-Iapetus regression near the Lower Middle Cambrian boundary. In: D.R. Wones (Ed.), The Caledonides in the USA. Proceedings, 1979 Meeting, Blacksburg, Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, pp. 15–18.
Peng, S., Babcock, L.E., Robison, R.A., Lin, H., Rees, M.N. and Saltzman, M.R. 2004. Global Standard Stratotype-Section and Point (GSSP) of the Furongian Series and Paibian Stage (Cambrian). Lethaia, 37, 351–474.
Richter, R. and Richter, E. 1941. Die Fauna des Unter-Kambriums von Cala in Andalusien. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 455, 1–81.
Rushton, A.W.A. 1966. The Cambrian trilobites from the Purley Shales of Warwickshire. Palaeontological Society Monographs, 120, 1–55.
Rushton, A.W.A. 1974. The Cambrian of Wales and England. In: C.H. Holland (Ed.), Cambrian of the British Isles, Norden and Spitsbergen, JohnWiley, pp. 43–120.
Rushton, A.W.A. and Powell, J.H. 1998. A review of the stratigraphy and trilobite faunas from the Cambrian Burj Formation in Jordan. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum of London (Geology), 54, 131–146.
Samsonowicz, J. 1920. Stratigraphy of the Cambrian and Ordovician in the eastern part of the Holy Cross Mountains. Sprawozdania Polskiego Instytutu Geologicznego, 1, 53–67. In Polish
Samsonowicz, J. 1934. Explication de la feuille Opatów. Service Géologique de Pologne. Carte Géologique Générale de la Pologne au 100.000–e, pp. 1–97.
Samsonowicz, J. 1956. Cambrian paleogeography and the base of the Cambrian systemin Poland. In: XX Congreso Geológico International. El sistema Cámbrico, su paleogeografía y el problema de su base. Part I, pp. 127–160.
Samsonowicz, J. 1959a. On Strenuaeva from Lower Cambrian in Klimontów Anticlinorium. Bulletin de l’Académie Polonaise des Sciences, Série des Sciences Chimiques, Géologiques et Géographiques, 7, 521–524.
Samsonowicz, J. 1959b. On Strenuella and Germaropyge from the Lower Cambrian in the Klimontów Anticlinorium. Bulletin de l’Académie Polonaise des Sciences, Série des Sciences Chimiques, Géologiques et Géographiques, 7, 525–529.
Samsonowicz, J. 1960. The Lower Cambrian of the Klimontów Anticlinorium. In: B. Asklund and C. Poulsen (Eds), Report of the Twenty-First Session, Norden, International Congress, Part VIII. Late Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian stratigraphy, pp. 86–92.
Samsonowicz, J. 1962. Lower Cambrian fossils from the Klimontów anticlinorium of the Holy Cross Mts., Poland. Prepared for print from the deceased author’s MS notes by K. Korejwo and L. Teller. In: E. Passendorfer (Ed.), Księga Pamiątkowa ku czci Profesora Jana Samsonowicza, pp. 9–29.
Sdzuy, K. 1961. Teil II: Trilobiten. In: F. Lotze and K. Sdzuy (Eds), Das Kambrium Spaniens. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Abhandlungen der matematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse 7, pp. 217–408.
Shergold, J.H. and Geyer, G. 2003. The Subcommission on Cambrian Stratigraphy: the status quo. Geologica Acta, 1, 5–9.
Sjögren, A. 1872. Om några försteningar i Ölands kambriska lager. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 1, 67–80.
Šnajdr, M. 1958. Trilobiti českého středního kambria. Rozpravy Ústředního Ústavu Geologického, 24, 1–280.
Staplin, F.L., Jansonius, J. and Pocock, S.A.J. 1965. Evaluation of some acritarchous hystrichosphere genera. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 123, 165–201.
Stasińska, A. 1960. Velumbrella czarnockii n. gen., n. sp. – Méduse du Cambrien inférieur des Monts de Sainte-Croix. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 5, 337–344.
Studencki, M. 1988. Sedimentary conditions of the Ociesęki Sandstone and Kamieniec Shale Formations (Lower Cambrian) in the Holy Cross Mountains. Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 32, 533–540. In Polish with English summary
Sundberg, F.A. and McCollum, L.B. 1997. Oryctocephalids (Corynexochida: Trilobita) of the Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary interval from California and Nevada. Journal of Paleontology, 71, 1065–1090.
Sundberg, F.A. and McCollum, L.B. 2007. Assessment of the potential GSSP sections for Cambrian series 3 using the FAD of Oryctocephalus indicus. In: E. Landing (Ed.) Ediacaran–Ordovician of East Laurentia – S.W. Ford Memorial Volume, 12th International Conference of the Cambrian ChronostratigraphyWorking Group. New York State Museum Bulletin, 510, 89–90.
Szczepanik, Z. 1988. Acritarcha from Cambrian deposits of the Wszachów 2 borehole. Geological Quarterly, 32, 541–554. In Polish
Szczepanik, Z. 1997. Preliminary results of thermal alteration investigations of the Cambrian acritarchs in the Holy Cross Mts. Geological Quarterly, 41, 257–264.
Szczepanik, Z. 2000. The Cambrian of the western part of the Pomeranian Caledonides foreland, Peribaltic Syneclise: microfloral evidence. Geological Quarterly, 44, 261–273.
Szczepanik, Z. 2001. Acritarchs from Cambrian deposits of the southern part of the Łysogóry unit in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Geological Quarterly, 45, 117–130.
Szczepanik, Z., Trela, W. and Salwa, S. 2004a. Upper Cambrian in the eastern part of the Kielce Region in the Holy Cross Mountains – preliminary report. Przegląd Geologiczny, 52, 895–898. In Polish
Szczepanik, Z., Trela, W., Żylińska, A. and Salwa, S. 2004b. New Cambrian and Ordovician lithostratigraphic units in the Kielce region of the Holy Cross Mountains. Posiedzenia Naukowe Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego, 61, 57–58. In Polish
Tynni, R. 1982. On Paleozoic microfossils in clastic dykes in the Åland Islands and in the core samples of Lumparn. In: L. Bergman, R. Tynni and B. Winterhalter (Eds), Palaeozoic sediments in the Rapakivi area of the Åland Islands. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Finland, 317, 36–132.
Valensi, L. 1949. Sur quelques microorganismes planctoniques de silex du Jurassique moyen du Poitou et de Normandie. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 5e série, 18, 537–550.
Valíček, J. and Szabad, M. 2002. Revision early Middle Cambrian trilobite fauna fromcentral Bohemia sic. Palaeontologia Bohemiae, 8, 75–98.
Vanguestaine, M. and Brück, P.M. 2008. A Middle and Late Cambrian age for the Booley Bay Formation, County Wexford, Ireland: New acritarch data and its implications. Revue de Micropaléontologie, 51, 67–95.
Vanguestaine, M. and Van Looy, J. 1983. Acritarches du Cambrien moyen de la vallée de Tacheddirt (Haut-Atlas, Maroc) dans le cadre d’une nouvelle zonation du Cambrien. Annales de la Société geologique de Belgique, 106, 69–85.
Vecoli, M., Videt, B. and Paris, F. 2008. First biostratigraphic (palynological) dating of Middle and Late Cambrian strata in the subsurface of northwestern Algeria, North Africa: Implications for regional stratigraphy. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 149, 57–62.
Vidal, G. 1981. Lower Cambrian acritarch stratigraphy in Scandinavia. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 103, 183–192.
Vidal, G. 1988. A palynological preparation method. Palynology, 12, 215–220.
Vidal, G., Moczydłowska, M. and Rudavskaya, V.A. 1995. Constraints on the Early Cambrian radiation and correlation of the Tommotian and Nemakit–Daldynian regional stages of eastern Siberia. Journal of the Geological Society, 152, 499–510.
Vidal, G. and Peel, J.S. 1993. Acritarchs from the Lower Cambrian Buen Formation in North Greenland. Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Bulletin, 164, 1–35.
Volkova, N.A. 1969. Acritarchs of the northwestern Russian Platform. In: A.Yu. Rozanov et al. (Eds), Tommotskii Yarus i Problema Nizhnei Granitsy Kembriya. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta, 206, 224–236. In Russian
Volkova, N.A. 1974. Acritarchs from the Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary beds of western Latvia. In: I.T. Zhuravleva and A.Yu. Rozanov (Eds), Biostratjgrafiya i paleontologiya nizhnego kembriya Evropy i severnoyAzii, pp. 194–198. Nauka, Moskva. In Russian
Volkova, N.A. 1990. The Middle and Upper Cambrian acritarchs in the East European Platform. Trudy Akademii Nauk SSSR, 454, 1–113. In Russian
Volkova, N.A., Kiryanov, V.V., Piskun, L.V., Paskeviciene, L.T. and Yankauskas, T.V. 1979. Plant microfossils. In: B.M. Keller and A.Yu. Rozanov (Eds), Paleontologiya verkhnedokembrijskikh i kembriyskikh otlozeniy Vostochno-Evropejskoj platformy, pp. 4–38. Nauka, Moskva. In Russian
Volkova, N.A., Kiryanov, V.V., Piskun, L.V., Paskeviciene, L.T. and Yankauskas, T.V. 1983. Plant microfossils. In: Urbanek and A.Yu. Rozanov (Eds), Upper Precambian and Cambrian Palaeontology of the East European Platform, pp. 7–46. Wydawnictwa Geologiczne, Warszawa.
Walcott, C.D. 1891. The fauna of Lower Cambrian or Olenellus Zone. Tenth Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1, 509–774.
Welsch, M. 1986. Die Acritarchen der höheren Digermul-Gruppe, Mittelkambrium bis Tremadoc, Ost-Finnmark, Nord-Norwegen. Palaeontographica, Abteilung B, 201, 1–109.
Westergård, A.H. 1928. A deep boring through Middle and Lower Cambrian strata at Borgholm, Isle of Öland. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning Ser. C, 355, 3–19.
Westergård, A.H. 1936. Paradoxides oelandicus beds of Öland with the account of a diamond boring through the Cambrian at Mossberga. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning Ser. C, 394, 5–66.
Westergård, A.H. 1946.Agnostidea of the Middle Cambrian of Sweden. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, 40, 1–141.
Yankauskas, T.V. 1972. Biostratigraphy of the Lower Cambrian of Lithuania based on acritarchs. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 205, 1186–1189. In Russian
Yankauskas, T.V. 1974. Correlation of Cambrian strata in the Lithuanian SSR based on acritarchs. In: I.T. Zhuravleva and A.Yu. Rozanov (Eds), Biostratjgrafiya i paleontologiya nizhnego kembriya Evropy i severnoj Azii, Nauka Moskva, 22–29. In Russian
Yankauskas, T.V. 1975. New Lower Cambrian acritarchs in the Baltic area. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal’, 1975(1), 94–104. In Russian
Yankauskas, T.V. 1982. Plant microfossils from the Upper Precambrian and Cambrian of the European part of the USSR, and their stratigraphic significance. Thesis – Akademiya Nauk SSSR. pp. 1–52. In Russian
Yankauskas, T.V. and Posti, E.A. 1973. Micropalaeontological characteristics of the Lower Cambrian stratotype sections in Estonia. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised, Keemia–Geoloogia, 22, 143–148. In Russian
Yankauskas, T.V. and Posti, E.A. 1976. New acritarch species in the Cambrian of the Baltic area. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised, Keemia–Geoloogia, 25, 145–151. In Russian
Young, T.P., Martin, F., Dean, W.T. and Rushton, A.W.A. 1994. Cambrian stratigraphy of St. Tudwal’s Peninsula, Gwynedd, NorthwestWales. Geological Magazine, 131, 335–360.
Zhao, Y., Yuan, J., Peng, S., Peng, J.,Wang, P. andWang, Y. 2004. Oryctocephalus indicus is the best trilobite of FAD of the Middle Cambrian sic. In: D. Choi (Ed.), IX International Conference of the Cambrian Stage Subdivision Working Group (Abstracts with Program), Taebaek, Korea, September 16-21, 32.
Zhao, Y.L., Yuan, J.L., Zhu, M.Y., Babcock, L.E., Peng, J., Wang, Y.,Yang, X.L., Guo, Q.J.,Yang, R.D. and Tai, T.S. 2005. Balang Section, Guizhou, China: stratotype section for the Taijiangian Stage and candidate for GSSP of an unnamed Cambrian series. In: S.C. Peng, L.E. Babcock and M.Y. Zhu (Eds), Cambrian System of China and Korea, Guide to Field Excursions, IV International Symposiumon the Cambrian Systemand X Field Conference of the Cambrian Stage Subdivision Working Group, 62–83.
Zhu, M.Y., Babcock, L.E. and Peng, S.C. 2006. Advances in Cambrian stratigraphy and paleontology: Integrating correlation techniques, paleobiology, taphonomy and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Palaeoworld, 15, 217–222.
Żylińska, A. 2002. Stratigraphic and biogeographic significance of Late Cambrian trilobites from Łysogóry (Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica, 52, 217–238.
Żylińska, A. and Masiak, M. 2007. Cambrian trilobites from Brzechów, Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) and their significance in stratigraphic correlation and biogeographic reconstructions. Geological Magazine, 144, 661–686.
DOI :
Qute : Żylińska, A. ,Żylińska, A. , Trilobite and acritarch assemblages from the Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary interval in the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica Vol. 59, no. 4/2009
facebook