Category: 2009

Variability of the Rotliegend sandstones in the Polish part of the Southern Permian Basin – permeability and porosity relationships

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Variability of the Rotliegend sandstones in the Polish part of the Southern Permian Basin – permeability and porosity relationships

Autorzy :
Warchoł, M.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Senacka 1, 31-002 Kraków, Poland, ndwarcho@cyf-kr.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : The Flow Zone Index, FZI, applied to order relations between the effective porosity and permeability of the Rotliegend sandstones in the Polish part of the Southern Permian Basin turns out to be a useful and effective factor to evaluate ability of media flow in a rock formation. A dataset of over 2000 samples from 78 wells was analysed. Based only on porosity and permeability, FZI includes all non-parameterized features of rocks as tortuosity and diameters of porous channels, volume of trapped parts of capillary roads, specific surface of pore space, and others. When FZI increases, the ability of fluid to move through the porous space increases. In most cases, the Rotliegend sandstones reveal FZI in the range of 0.5-2.0. The highest FZI, ca. 100, is related to fractured part of the studied formation. The combination of FZI and facies information from several wells in the study area (over 1200 samples) showed a good correlation. On the basis of FZI we can divide a set of samples of the Rotliegend sandstone into groups of defined fluid flow abilities and relate them to facies. Also, we show the way of estimation of the reliable values of permeability in full geological log of a borehole on the basis of FZI, and the total porosity determined from well logging interpretation.

Słowa kluczowe : Rotliegend sandstones, porosity, permeability, Flow Zone Index, FZI, facies,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 1
Strony : 13 – 26
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DOI :
Cytuj : Warchoł, M. , Variability of the Rotliegend sandstones in the Polish part of the Southern Permian Basin – permeability and porosity relationships. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 1/2009

Cephalopod fauna and stratigraphy of the Adnet type red deposits of the Krížna unit in the Western Tatra Mountains, Poland

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Cephalopod fauna and stratigraphy of the Adnet type red deposits of the Krížna unit in the Western Tatra Mountains, Poland

Autorzy :
Warchoł, M.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Senacka 1, 31-002 Kraków, Poland, ndwarcho@cyf-kr.edu.pl,
Myczyński, R.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Poland, rmyczyns@wp.pl,
Abstrakty : The Lower Jurassic Adnet type red limestones and marlstones (Kliny Limestone Member, Huciska Limestone Formation) of the Krížna unit in the Tatra Mountains comprise cephalopod fauna represented by ammonites, belemnites and rarely by nautiloids. Ammonites belong to the families Phyloceratidae, Lytoceratidae, Hildoceratidae and Dactylioceratidae and indicate Early Toarcian Serpentinum Zone, Middle Toarcian Bifrons Zone (most probably Sublevisoni and Bifrons Subzones) and Late Toarcian Pseudoradiosa Zone. Hence, the age of Adnet type deposits may be estimated as Early Toarcian-Late Toarcian. Relatively moderate diversity of ammonite assemblage is noticed. Ammonites and nautiloids are preserved mainly as internal moulds, only some specimens display preserved calcified shells. Part of this macrofauna has resedimented character. Studied ammonite assemblage is closely related to that of the Mediterranean Province.

Słowa kluczowe : ammonites, nautiloids, Toarcian, Western Tethys,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 1
Strony : 27 – 39
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DOI :
Cytuj : Warchoł, M. ,Myczyński, R. , Cephalopod fauna and stratigraphy of the Adnet type red deposits of the Krížna unit in the Western Tatra Mountains, Poland. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 1/2009
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Deformation structures in the gneissic exotic pebbles from the area of Wołosate (Cisna sandstone, Dukla tectonic unit, Outer Carpathians, Poland)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Deformation structures in the gneissic exotic pebbles from the area of Wołosate (Cisna sandstone, Dukla tectonic unit, Outer Carpathians, Poland)

Autorzy :
Warchoł, M.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Senacka 1, 31-002 Kraków, Poland, ndwarcho@cyf-kr.edu.pl,
Myczyński, R.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Poland, rmyczyns@wp.pl,
Kania, M.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul. Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Kraków, Poland, maciej.kania@uj.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : Gneissic exotic pebbles from the Cisna beds (Dukla tectonic unit) in the region of Wołosate (Bieszczady Mts., Eastern Carpathians) were investigated. These exotic pebbles are from 9.5 to 13 cm in size. Basing on the structural features, the following groups of exotic pebbles were distinguished: granitic gneisses, laminated gneisses, flaser gneisses and mylonitic gneisses. Granite – granodiorite protolith was deformed in the shear zone; strain partitioning was probably an important process during deformation. The observed structures allow to determine the temperature of metamorphism as 500-550°C. The lower limit of pressure was determined basing on phengite geobarometer as 5 kbar. The nature and localization of the source area can be similar to the Bretila sequence from the Romanian Eastern Carpathians.

Słowa kluczowe : gneissic exotic pebbles, foliation, metamorphism, mica fish, Bieszczady Mts., Outer Carpathians, Poland,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 1
Strony : 41 – 52
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DOI :
Cytuj : Warchoł, M. ,Myczyński, R. ,Kania, M. , Deformation structures in the gneissic exotic pebbles from the area of Wołosate (Cisna sandstone, Dukla tectonic unit, Outer Carpathians, Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 1/2009
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Provenance and diagenesis of siliciclastic and organic material in the Albian-Turonian sediments (Silesian Nappe, Lanckorona, Outer Carpathians, Poland): preliminary studies

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Provenance and diagenesis of siliciclastic and organic material in the Albian-Turonian sediments (Silesian Nappe, Lanckorona, Outer Carpathians, Poland): preliminary studies

Autorzy :
Warchoł, M.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Senacka 1, 31-002 Kraków, Poland, ndwarcho@cyf-kr.edu.pl,
Myczyński, R.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Poland, rmyczyns@wp.pl,
Kania, M.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul. Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Kraków, Poland, maciej.kania@uj.edu.pl,
Wójcik-Tabol, P.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul. Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Kraków, Poland, tabol@uj.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : The provenance and diagenesis of the siliciclastic and hemipelagic sediments of three lithostratigraphic units: Lhoty Formation, Barnasiówka Radiolarian Shale Formation (BRSF) and Variegated Shales from Lancko- rona area, Polish Outer Carpathians, was approached by means of petrological and geochemical analysis of the representative samples. Data show that studied succession was mainly derived from two sources: 1. a dominant terrigenous fine-grained components have affinity with average upper continental crust (basing on mineral detritus, K2O/Rb ratio and Y/Ni vs. Cr/V ratios) and 2. biogenic siliceous material and macerals. Composition varies up section and accounts for changes in the detrital supply due to eustatic sea-evel changes. Organic petrology shows presence of organic detritus within the Lhoty Fm and dominance of marine-derived macerals in the BRSF. Chemical and petrological features imply a progressive deepening of the basin. The studied succession was diagenetically altered (e.g. coalification of bituminite, illitisation of smectite and pyritisation).

Słowa kluczowe : organic and inorganic geochemistry, Albian-Turonian, Silesian Nappe, Outer Carpathians, Poland,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 1
Strony : 53 – 66
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DOI :
Cytuj : Warchoł, M. ,Myczyński, R. ,Kania, M. ,Wójcik-Tabol, P. , Provenance and diagenesis of siliciclastic and organic material in the Albian-Turonian sediments (Silesian Nappe, Lanckorona, Outer Carpathians, Poland): preliminary studies. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 1/2009
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Neotectonic activity of the Skawa River Fault Zone (Quter Carpathians, Poland)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Neotectonic activity of the Skawa River Fault Zone (Quter Carpathians, Poland)

Autorzy :
Warchoł, M.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Senacka 1, 31-002 Kraków, Poland, ndwarcho@cyf-kr.edu.pl,
Myczyński, R.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Poland, rmyczyns@wp.pl,
Kania, M.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul. Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Kraków, Poland, maciej.kania@uj.edu.pl,
Wójcik-Tabol, P.
Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul. Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Kraków, Poland, tabol@uj.edu.pl,
Zuchiewicz, W.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, witoldzuchiewicz@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : The Skawa River catchment basin in the Outer Western Carpathians of Poland is situated upon morphostructures showing differentiated mobility in the Quaternary. Long profile of river channel reveals the lowest values of concavity index among the Polish Outer Carpathian rivers, pointing to low degree of river profile maturity, particularly in its middle reach coinciding with a zone of abnormally high river bed gradients. The Skawa River valley utilizes in its middle and northern reaches the Skawa River Fault Zone (SRFZ) composed of differently oriented oblique-slip faults, visible on DEM images as well-marked, rectilinear topolinea-ments. The NNW–SSE to N-S faults in the Silesian Nappe were probably reactivated in Late Pleistocene times as normal faults downthrowing their eastern sides, as shown by abnormally high position of the Weichselian Early Glacial straths on the western valley side. Such an episode of neotectonic activity (late Early Glacial times of the Last Glacial stage) has not been recognized so far in the other river valleys of the Polish segments of the Western Outer Carpathians. We conclude that some of the NNW-SSE to N–S trending faults were reactivated as strike-slip faults. This would conform to the present day stress arrangement within the Polish segment of Carpathians. Moreover, deformations of the Pleistocene straths between Osielec in the south and Wadowice-Zator areas in the north appear to indicate both pre-Weichselian and Weichselian reactivation of the Silesian and – to a lesser extent – Magura frontal thrusts. These movements continued also in the Holocene, although to a smaller extent, most probably due to moderately strong and/or strong earthquakes of magnitudes exceeding 5.5-5.7, resulting in clast fracturing within Holocene alluvium, particularly strong on the Silesian frontal thrust, and less intensive on the Carpathian marginal and Magura frontal thrusts, as well as on some faults that belong to the SRFZ. We are convinced that the record of seismically-induced clast fracturing on one of major fault zones in the Outer Carpathians should lead to revision of the hitherto-existing seismic risk assessment of this region, and particularly of the city of Kraków and other urbanized areas, as well as the planned artificial water reservoir at Świnna Poręba.

Słowa kluczowe : neotectonics, morphotectonics, fractured clasts, seismic hazard, Skawa River valley, Outer Carpathians, Poland,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 1
Strony : 67 – 93
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DOI :
Cytuj : Warchoł, M. ,Myczyński, R. ,Kania, M. ,Wójcik-Tabol, P. ,Zuchiewicz, W. , Neotectonic activity of the Skawa River Fault Zone (Quter Carpathians, Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 1/2009
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Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : The discovery of large Pleistocene mammals in 1907 and 1929 in the Starunia ozokerite mine, about 130 kilometres southeast of Lviv, Ukraine, was a spectacular scientific event on a world scale. A unique combination of brine and oil, into which the animals had sunk, resulted in the near perfect preservation of woolly rhinoceros. In 2004, investigations in Starunia were restarted by Polish and Ukrainian scientists. This issue of Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae contains 18 papers which present the results of field and laboratory studies in the Starunia area completed by Polish scientists in the years 2006-2009. Interdisciplinary studies were realized by eleven thematic working groups on: Quaternary lithology and sedimentology, palaeobotany (palynology and analysis of macrofossils), botany (analysis of halophytes), palaeozoology (malacological analysis), radiocarbon dating, microbiology, surface and near-surface geochemistry, organic geochemistry (bitumen content and its fractions, biomarkers and stable carbon isotopes) and inorganic geochemistry (chloride ion analysis), geoelectric survey (DC resistivity soundings, electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurements, resistivity imaging, penetrometer-based resistivity profiling and azimuthal pole-dipole DC resistivity soundings) and microgravimetric survey. Results of these studies enabled recognition of the geological setting and sedimentary environment of Quaternary sediments, which hosted the Pleistocene fossils, and to determine the most favourable area of about 1,000 square metres for subsequent prospecting for extinct mammals within Pleistocene sediments in Starunia.

Słowa kluczowe : Starunia, abandoned ozokerite mine, palaeontological site, woolly rhinoceros, Pleistocene, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 219 – 241
Bibliografia : Adamenko, O. M., Stelmakh, O. R., Zinchuk, M. S. & Kotarba, M. J., 2005a. History of petroleum exploration in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 53-60.
Adamenko, O. M., Krizhanivskiy, E. I., Vekeryk, V. I., Stelmakh, O. P., Mischenko, L. V., Zorina, N. O., Zorin, D. O. & Ambrozyak, M. V., 2005b. A concept of an international “Ice-Age Geopark” as an ecological-tourist center in Starunia for merozokerite mine, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 205-210.
Adamenko, O. M., Stelmakh, O. R., Zorin, D. O. & Radlovska, K. O., 2009. The ecological-tourist centre in Starunia (Ukrainian Carpathians). Geoturystyka (in press).
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2002. Starunia jako sym bol aktywności badawczej Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności). (In Polish). Prace Komisji Historii Nauki Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności, 4: 71-89.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2003. Krytyczny przegląd malakofauny z wykopalisk w Staruni. (In Polish). Prace Komisji Historii Nauki Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności, 1: 159-162.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2004. Starunia and the Quaternary research in the tradition and initiatives of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. (In Polish, English summary). Studia i materiały do dziejów Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności, 3: 261 pp.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2005a. Historia i ostatnie lata działalności kopalni wosku ziemnego w Staruni. (In Polish). Prace Komisji Historii Nauki PAU, 7: 71-89.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2005b. The history of Starunia – a palaeontologic site and old ozokerite mine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukranian gelogical studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 21- 36.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., Alexandrowicz, W. P. & Krąpiec, M., 2005. Holocene terrace of the VelykyLukavets River in Starunia: sediments and dendrochronology. In: Kotarba, M. J.(ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geoloigcal studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 95-101.
Andreeva-Grigorovich, A. S., Gruzman, A. D., Reifman, L. M. & Smirnov, S. E., 1986. Biostratigraficheskaya kharakteristika opornogo razreza menilitovoy svity por. Chechva, Ukrainskie Karpaty. (In Russian). Paleontologicheskiy sbornik, 23: 83-89.
Andreyeva-Grigorovich, A. S., Kulchytsky, Y. O., Gruzman, A. D., Lozynyak, P. Y., Petrashkevich, M. I., Portnyagina, L. O., Ivanina, A. V., Smirnov, S. E., Trofimovich, N. A., Savitskaya, N. A. & Shvareva, N. J., 1997. Regional stratigraphic scheme of Neogene formations of the Central Paratethys in the Ukraine. Geologica Carpathica, 48: 123-136.
Angus, R. B., 1973. Pleistocene”Hellephorus (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)” from Borislav and Starunia in the Western Ukraine, with are interpretation of M. Łomnicki'sspecies, description of a new Siberian species, and comparison with British Weichselian faunas. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, Biological Sciences, 265: 299-326.
AOGFU, 1998. Atlas of oil and gas fields of Ukraine. Fedyshyn, V. et al. (eds), Lviv, Ukrainian Oil and Gas Academy, v. 5:710 pp.
Baranovskiy, N. F. & Sukharev, M. F., 1959. Ozokeryt (dobycha, pererabotka i primenenje). (In Russian). Izdatel'stvo Gostoptekh, Moskva, 203 pp.
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Barabasz, W., Chmiel, M. J. & Ostafin, M., 2009. Microbiological characteristics of Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 439-446.
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J , Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Development of relief of the Velyky Lukavets River valley near Starunia palaeontological site (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Development of relief of the Velyky Lukavets River valley near Starunia palaeontological site (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : In Quaternary sediments filling the Velyky Lukavets River valley, at the abandoned ozokerite mine (= Ropyshche) in Starunia, perfectly preserved carcasses of large mammals were discovered in the first half of the 20th century. The study area includes a fragment of the valley between Molotkiv and Starunia, and its close vicinity. The area belongs to several morphostructural and geomorphic units of the Outer Eastern Carpathians and the Carpathian Foreland. The asymmetric, subsequent valley is a part of the Mizhbystrytska Upland, where flattened ridges and flat bulges represent fragments of planation surfaces: the upper (the Krasna level), elevated 170 m above the valley bottom and linked with the Late Pliocene, and the lower one (the Loyova level), rising at 100 m and linked with the Eopleistocene. Several flat surfaces are visible on valley slopes, probably representing river terraces formed before the Late Pleistocene. The valley attained its maximum depth during the Eemian Interglacial (OIS 5e). In the Ropyshche area, probably three terrace steps built of Weichselian and Holocene sediments (OIS 5d – 1) were developed, but their top surfaces are almost completely destroyed by mining operations. The recent, meandering river bed follows the zones of decreased cohesiveness of rocks resulting from mining activity and is becoming somewhat deepened during inundations. The transported material is mostly coarse-clastic one. The two latter factors may suggest that the river is underloaded due to declining agriculture and decreasing intensity of outwash. The top surface of the sub-Quaternary basement is deformed by subsidence and collapse of mine workings, but the relief of valley bottom allows for further exploration for remnants of large mammals not only in the Ropyscche area but along the whole studied segment of the valley, as well.

Słowa kluczowe : geomorphology, river terraces, Starunia, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 243 – 254
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. , Development of relief of the Velyky Lukavets River valley near Starunia palaeontological site (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : An abandoned ozokerite mine (= Ropyshche), where large mammal remains were discovered in the first half of the 20th century, is located in the Velyky Lukavets River valley covered with Quaternary sediments. The catchment area includes a flysch sequence unconformably overlain by salt-bearing Lower Miocene molasses of the Vorotyshcha beds. Both the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene are represented by: channel (gravel, sandy gravel) and overbank alluvium (mud, peat, biogenic mud) and colluvium (mud, sandy mud) as well as by mine wastes. The channel sediments are usually found in the lowest fragments of the borehole logs and represent mainly material deposited in the straight segments of meandering river-beds. The most common, fine-grained (Mz = 61.33 to 7.11 ?m), distal floodplain sediments are locally up to 10 m thick and are dominated by massive mud lithofacies, which contain frequent burrows, root hairs or slightly larger root traces and reed rods. These sediments are characterized by rather stable grain size distribution, quite monotonous mineral composition, presence of resistant heavy minerals and quartz grains with traces of chemical weathering. Angular grains with conchoidal fractures and sharp edges also occur. Therefore, textural features show that the main sources of material were, most probably, weathering crusts of various ages developed on relatively poorly lithologically diversified Carpathian flysch strata and on Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep. With time, an increase of the content of material originating from mechanical weathering (frost action) occurred in the floodplain deposits, which can be linked to an increase of climate severity and reduction of vegetation. However, these changes are not recorded in the deposits, which developed mostly in closed hollows and accumulated mainly from suspension or from low-energy flows. This calm sedimentation was periodically interrupted by supply of more coarse-grained material (sand, gravel). A distinct predominance of overbank deposits in the sections documented by their thickness suggests that the northward flow of the Velyky Lukavets River was blocked as a result of either neotectonic movements or damming of the valley by landslide tongues. From the lithological point of view, the most favourable conditions for preservation of large, extinct mammals still exist in the two selected areas, where the total thickness of Pleistocene muds exceeds 2 metres. The first area is located in the vicinity of boreholes Nos 2, 3, 21, 22, 23, 28, 30 33 and 36N, and the other, smaller one, is placed around borehole No. 42.

Słowa kluczowe : Quaternary fluvial sediments, Velyky Lukavets River valley, Starunia, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 255 – 278
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. , Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Quaternary environmental changes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on palaeobotanical studies

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Quaternary environmental changes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on palaeobotanical studies

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Abstrakty : The unique nature of the Starunia palaeontological site, where nearly perfectly preserved large mammals were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, and also the incompletely researched history of the Pleistocene vegetation of the region, provided the necessary stimulus to undertake further complex palaeobotanical investigations. The Pleistocene and Holocene sediments filling the Velyky Lukavets River valley are the object of this type of investigation. Both the succession of vegetation and radiocarbon dating indicate that the formation of biogenic sediments began in the Weichselian Middle Pleniglacial, in the Moershoofd interstadial, and lasted through the Hengelo/Denekamp Interstadial Complex and the Late Glacial and Holocene. Palaeobotanical investigations show the Middle Pleniglacial to have been characterized by an open, forestless landscape. Grassland steppe communities dominated with extremely high proportions of Poaceae, as well as Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, and a number of herbaceous plant taxa. More moist places were occupied by dwarf shrub tundra with Betula nana, Alnus viridis, and Cyperaceae. Small changes in the character of the vegetation resulting from climatic oscillations made their mark through a slight increase in the proportion of tree-birches, fir and pine. The record of Late Weichselian plant succession in the Velyky Lukavets River valley also documents the dominance of open habitats with a preponderance of steppe and steppe-tundra communities and a dry, continental climate. Only with the beginning of the Holocene did an improvement in climate conditions lead to the rapid expansion of forest communities with a dominance of pine accompanied by fir, larch, and trees, which are more demanding in terms of temperature, e.g. elm, oak, lime, hornbeam and hazel.

Słowa kluczowe : pollen analysis, macroremains analysis, palaeoclimate, Pleistocene, Holocene, Starunia, Ukrainian Carpathians,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 279 – 288
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Korin, S. S., 2005. Miocene salt-bearing Vorotyshcha Beds in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004- 2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 79-86.
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Kotarba, M. J., Więcław, D., Koltun, Y. V., Lewan, M. D., Marynowski, L. & Dudok, I. V., 2005. Organic geochemical study and genetic correlations between source rocks and hydrocarbons from surface seeps and deep accumulations in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies in the years 2004-2005 at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 125-145.
Kuc, T., Różański, K., Goslar, T., Kubiak, H. & Kotarba, M. J., 2005. Radiocarbon dating of remnants of woolly rhinoceroses and mammoth from Starunia, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 195-203.
Kuc, T., Różański, K., Goslar, T. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2009. Radiocarbon dating of plant remnants in Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 289-296.
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. , Quaternary environmental changes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on palaeobotanical studies. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Radiocarbon dating of plant remnants in Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Radiocarbon dating of plant remnants in Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : Radiocarbon dating applied on several occasions in the past to date animal bones and animal soft tissue originating from the area of the Starunia palaeontological site turned out to be very controversial. Although investigations of Pleistocene flora in the Starunia area go back to the beginning of the 20th century, no published 14C dates of such material are available to date. Sixteen boreholes drilled in the area of the Pleistocene mammals discoveries, in the framework of a multidisciplinary research project (2006-2009), have been selected for radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossils. Moreover, five samples of plant remnants extracted from two outcrops in the area were 14C-dated. The nature of the dated plant material, in some cases soaked with oil, posed specific methodological problems. Although applied chemical treatment of macrofossil samples led to complete removal of contaminating hydrocarbons in the case of small pieces, some ageing effects in terms of radiocarbon dating cannot be completely ruled out. Radiocarbon ages of macrofossil samples originating from the close neighbourhood of the location, where the “second” woolly rhinoceros was found at a depth of 12.5 m, suggest that the minimum age of sediments in which the Pleistocene mammals were found is in the range of ca. 35-40 ka BP. A broad consistency between palynological reconstruction of Younger Dryas/Preboreal boundary and the corresponding radiocarbon ages of macrofossils is observed for locations, where the natural sedimentary sequence for late Glacial and early Holocene was not disturbed by extensive mining activity in the area.

Słowa kluczowe : radiocarbon dating, AMS dating, woolly rhinoceros, Starunia, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 289 – 296
Bibliografia : Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2004. Starunia i badania czwartorzędu w tradycji i inicjatywach Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności. (In Polish, English summary). Studia i materiały do dziejów PAU, 3: 261 pp.
Bayger, J. A., Hoyer, H., Kiernik, E., Kulczyński, W., Łomnicki, M., Łomnicki, J., Mierzejewski, W., Niezabitowski, W., Raciborski, M., Szafer, W. & Schille, F., 1914. Wykopaliska Staruńskie. (In Polish). Muzeum im. Dzieduszyckich, Lwów, 15: 386 pp.
Czernik, J. & Goslar, T., 2001. Preparation of graphite targets in the Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory for AMS 14C dating. Radiocarbon, 43: 283-291.
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Hoyer, H., 1914. Über die Haut und Behaarung des Rhinoceros und Mammuts von Starunia in Galizien. (In German). Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie, 18: 207-226.
Koltun, Y. V., Dudok, I. V., Kotarba, M. J., Adamenko, O. M., Pavlyuk, M. I., Burzewski, W. & Stelmakh, O. R., 2005. Geological setting and petroleum occurrence of the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 61-77.
Korin, S. S., 2005. Miocene salt-bearing Vorotysha Beds in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004- 2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 79-86.
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Kotarba, M. J., 2009. Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 219-241.
Kotarba, M. J., Więcław, D., Koltun, Y. V., Lewan, M. D., Marynowski, L. & Dudok, I. V., 2005. Organic geochemical study and genetic correlation between source rocks and hydrocarbons from surface seeps and deep accumulations in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 125- 145.
Kotarba, M. J., Więcław, D., Toboła, T., Zych, H., Kowalski, A. & Ptak, S., 2009. Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 447-461.
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Kuc, T., Różański, K., Goslar T., Kubiak, H. & Kotarba, M. J., 2005. Radiocarbon dating of remnants of woolly rhinoceroses and mammoth from Starunia, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 195-204.
Kucowa, I., 1954. Krytyczny przegląd gatunków wierzb (Salix L.) z osadów glacjalnych Polski. (In Polish). Acta Societatis Botanicum Poloniae, 23: 807-837.
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Sokołowski, T. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2009. Chronostratigraphy and changes of environment of Late Pleistocene and Holocene at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 315-331.
Sokołowski, T., Stachowicz-Rybka, R. & Woronko, B., 2009. Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 255-278.
Stachowicz-Rybka, R., Granoszewski, W. & Hrynowiecka- Czmielewska, M., 2009a. Quaternary environmental changes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on palaeobotanical studies. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 279-288.
Stachowicz-Rybka, R., Gałka, M., Alexandrowicz, W. P. & Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2009b. Plant macrofossils and malacocoenoses of Quaternary mineral-organic sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 297- 313.
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. , Radiocarbon dating of plant remnants in Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
[Top]

Plant macrofossils and malacocoenoses of Quaternary mineral-organic sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Plant macrofossils and malacocoenoses of Quaternary mineral-organic sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Abstrakty : The unique nature of the Starunia palaeontological site, where near-perfectly preserved large mammals were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, and incomplete knowledge on the development of palaeoenvironment in the Velyky Lukavets River valley in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene were the reasons for undertaking new comprehensive palaeobotanical and malacological studies. Starunia is also one of the sites bearing Pleistocene fossil flora, rare in this part of Europe. The results of plant macrofossil analysis show that in the Weichselian Middle Pleniglacial the landscape was dominated by steppe and tundra plant communities, being represented mostly by various grass and sedge species. Areas of higher humidity were covered with shrub tundra with Betula nana. The temperature requirements of taxa which are cool climate indicators show that the minimum July temperature amounted to at least 10°C. The record of Late Weichselian malacofauna confirms the dominance of an open landscape, mostly with steppe and steppe-tundra communities, as well as the presence of a dry, continental climate. At the beginning of the Holocene, an improvement of climatic and humidity conditions led to a fast local expansion of plant communities of the low and transition peat bog type, in the surroundings of shallow, periodically drying-up water pools. From the Middle Pleniglacial up to the present day, the area has been characterized by the presence of species tolerating an increased amount of salt in the environment. Their presence should be associated with natural brine effluences derived from Miocene strata in the bedrock.

Słowa kluczowe : Upper Pleistocene, Holocene, palaeoenvironment, plant macroremains, malacology, Starunia, Ukrainian, Carpathians,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 297 – 313
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. , Plant macrofossils and malacocoenoses of Quaternary mineral-organic sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Chronostratigraphy and changes of environment of Late Pleistocene and Holocene at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Chronostratigraphy and changes of environment of Late Pleistocene and Holocene at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : This paper presents the results of absolute dating and biostratigraphical analysis carried out for alluvial sediments of an abandoned Starunia ozokerite mine located in the Velyky Lukavets River valley, in which large mammal remains were discovered in the first half of the 20th century. The sediments build up three terrace levels. The highest one, up to 8 m high (terrace II), is likely to be associated with a stage of aggradation, as well as with a short episode of valley broadening, which occurred in the Weichselian Late Pleniglacial. The lower one, 4 m high (terrace I), is most likely to be linked with the Holocene, despite a considerable transformation of its top due to mining activity. The lower part of this terrace cover bears coarse-grained channel sediments dated to 120.6-58.9 ka BP (Eemian Interglacial?-Early Pleniglacial – OIS 5e, 4 and 3), and overbank (distal floodplain) mud with intercalations of biogenic deposits (peat, peat mud and biogenic mud). The overbank deposits are dated to 48.2-11.11 ka BP (Glinde Interstadial?-Younger Dryas, OIS 3-2) and are overlain by Holocene (OIS 1) mud and biogenic deposits. In boreholes drilled in the vicinity of the present-day river channel, younger sediments occur more frequently. These include sediments originating from the Late Weichselian overlain by Holocene sediments. However, sediments originating exclusively from the Holocene are infrequent. The deposition of sediments took place in specific conditions of a permanent saturation of the environment with brine, petroleum and thickened bitumen. In the longest period of deposition (48.2-1.27 ka BP), ephemeral swamps, ponds and lakes were developed in different parts of the floodplain. They were marked by the presence of: Juncus glaucus/effusus, J. articulatus, Typha sp., Batrachium sp., Potamogeton filliformis, Bidens tripartita, Ranunculus sceleratus and Phragmites communis, as well as by halophytic species, like: Zannichellia palustris, Triglochin maritimum, Schoenoplectus tabernemontani, Puccinelia distans and Eleocharis palustris. Rhythmic oscillations between cold and warm climatic conditions, typical of the Weichselian age and well identified in Western Europe, are here marked by the changes of plant communities (woody assemblages passing into steppe and tundra), but are not noticeably recorded in the sediments of the Velyky Lukavets River. This shows that the greatest part of the discussed period involved the formation of poorly differentiated silty overbank sediments with intercalations of biogenic sediments. However, the variability of sediments provides evidence for extreme events which occurred in the Holocene.

Słowa kluczowe : Late Pleistocene, Holocene, fluvial deposits, environment, Starunia, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 315 – 331
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. , Chronostratigraphy and changes of environment of Late Pleistocene and Holocene at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
[Top]

Characterization of near-surface sediments based on combined geoelectric studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Characterization of near-surface sediments based on combined geoelectric studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : Combined geoelectric research was performed in the Starunia area, where the specimens of woolly rhinoceros were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century. The work included: DC resistivity soundings, electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurements, resistivity imaging and penetrometer-based resistivity profiling. The main purpose of the survey was to give geoelectric characterization of near-to-surface sediments and estimate their variability (extent, thickness and electric resistivity). Generally, resistivity of geological strata is low and decreases with depth but its spatial distribution is locally complex. This complexity reflects joint effects caused by the presence of salty underground water outflows from the salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds into the Quaternary sediments, distinct transformations of the geological medium by former ozokerite and oil exploitation and current activity of the natural geological processes in the area.

Słowa kluczowe : geoelectric survey, DC resistivity soundings, electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurements, resistivity imaging, penetrometer-based resistivity profiling, Starunia, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 333 – 342
Bibliografia : Alexandrowicz, S. W., Alexandrowicz, W. P. & Krąpiec, M., 2005. Holocene terrace of the Velyky Lukavets River in Starunia: sediments and dendrochronology. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukranian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 95- 101
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Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), 2005. Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków, 218 pp.
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Sokołowski, T. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2009. Chronostratigraphy and changes of environment of Late Pleistocene and Holocene at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 315-331.
Sokołowski, T., Stachowicz-Rybka, R. & Woronko, B., 2009. Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 255-278.
Stachowicz-Rybka, R., Granoszewski, W. & Hrynowiecka- Czmielewska, A., M., 2009. Quaternary environmental changes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on palaeobotanical studies. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 279-288
DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. , Characterization of near-surface sediments based on combined geoelectric studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
[Top]

Electric resistivity and compactness of sediments in the vicinity of boreholes drilled in the years 2007-2008 in the area of Starunia palaeontological site (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Electric resistivity and compactness of sediments in the vicinity of boreholes drilled in the years 2007-2008 in the area of Starunia palaeontological site (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : Geoelectric research aiming to assess heterogeneity of geological environment was carried out in the Starunia area, where the unique specimens of woolly rhinoceros were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century. The DC azimuthal pole-dipole resistivity soundings and penetrometer-based resistivity profiling with simultaneous penetration-velocity measurements were used to study variability of environment in the vicinity of geological boreholes. No evident correlation was found between lithology of drilled sediments and geophysical data. Nevertheless, remarkable horizontal and vertical variability of geophysical parameters were observed. The largest horizontal changes may reflect an existence of some sharp boundaries in study area. The measured physical properties of geological strata: electric resistivity and compactness (estimated from penetration velocity) change also with the depth but correlation with geological structure can be found in limited cases only. Registered variability may have originated from several reasons: complex geological arrangement of shallow layers, salty underground water and bitumen presence in voids and pores, influence of neotectonic activity, and/or from transformations of near surface environment caused by past mining activity.

Słowa kluczowe : geological boreholes, geoelectric survey, DC azimuthal pole-dipole resistivity soundings, penetrometer-based resistivity profiling, penetration velocity measurements, Starunia, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 343 – 355
Bibliografia : Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2004. Starunia and the Quaternary research in the tradition and initiatives of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. (In Polish, English summary). Studia i materiały do dziejów Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności, 3: 261 pp.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., Alexandrowicz, W. P. & Krąpiec, M., 2005. Holocene terrace of the Velyky Lukavets River in Starunia: sediments and dendrochronology. In: M. J. Kotarba (ed.), Pol ish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Envi ronmental Changes “Geosphere” , Warszawa-Kraków: 95- 101.
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Kotarba, M. J., 2009. Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 219-241.
Kotarba, M. J., Dzieniewicz, M. & Sechman, H., 2005. Geochemical survey, molecular and isotopic compositions, and genetic identification of near-surface gases from the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 157-174.
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Sokołowski, T., Stachowicz-Rybka, R. & Woronko, B., 2009. Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 255-278.
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. , Electric resistivity and compactness of sediments in the vicinity of boreholes drilled in the years 2007-2008 in the area of Starunia palaeontological site (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Recognition of geological structures at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on gravity surveys

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Recognition of geological structures at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on gravity surveys

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : In the early 20th century, relics of Pleistocene mammals were found near the village of Starunia. Gravity surveys performed in the place of the discovery revealed a low-density bed in the Miocene Vorotyshcha salt-bearing beds. The lowered density resulted from high halite content and probably an increased number of ozokerite veins. The localization of zoological relics can be attributed to the existence of this bed. Surface gravity surveys enabled scientists to determine its course and horizontal range. Gravity surveys also confirmed the existence of the Rinne fault. In the western part of the study area gravity modelling showed an interface between Miocene Vorotyshcha salt-bearing beds and Sloboda Conglomerates, differing in average bulk density. Geologic data indicate that this interface may have the form of an overthust rather than of a fault.

Słowa kluczowe : Starunia, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 357 – 363
Bibliografia : Fajklewicz, Z., 2007. Grawimetria stosowana (In Polish). Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne, Kraków, 433 pp.
Fajklewicz, Z., Madej, J. & Radomiński, J., 1994. Poszukiwanie metodą grawimetryczną kontynuacji złoża siarczanów w północnym bloku Lubichowa. (In Polish). Konferencja: “Problemy geologii i ekologii w górnictwie podziemnym”, Szczyrk 12-14 październik 1994; 139-152.
Korin, S. S., 2005. Miocene salt-bearing Vorotyshcha Beds in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004- 2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 79-86.
Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), 2005. Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków, 218 pp.
Kotarba, M. J., 2009. Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 219-241.
Kotarba, M. J. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2008. Wyjątkowe stanowisko paleontologiczne i środowisko osadów plejstoceńskich, w których znaleziono nosorożce włochate w Staruni (Karpaty Wschodnie). (In Polish). Przegląd Geologiczny, 56, 6: 442-452.
Madej, J. & Porzucek, S., 2005. Elements of geological setting of for merozokerite mine based on gravity survey in Starunia, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: M. J. Kotarba (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 115- 124.
Mitura, F., 1944. Geologia złoża wosku w Staruni. (In Polish). Unpublished report, Archive of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 18 ms. pp.
Sokołowski, T. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2009. Chronostratigraphy and changes of environment of Late Pleistocene and Holocene at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 315-331.
Sokołowski, T., Stachowicz-Rybka, R. & Woronko, B., 2009. Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 255-278.
Stachowicz-Rybka, R., Granoszewski, W. & Hrynowiecka- Czmielewska, A., 2009a. Quaternary environmental changes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on palaeobotanical studies. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 279-288
DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Porzucek, S. , Recognition of geological structures at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on gravity surveys. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Detection of near-surface geological heterogeneity at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on microgravity survey

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Detection of near-surface geological heterogeneity at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on microgravity survey

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : Results of a microgravity survey performed in the abandoned Starunia ozokerite mine (Carpathian region, Ukraine), where in the early 20th century well preserved remains of large, extinct mammals were found, are discussed in the paper. A number of gravity anomalies indicating the geological heterogeneity at the sub-Quaternary strata have been observed. The assumed measurement observations also enabled the authors to interpret the results in view of density changes in the Quaternary strata. Most of the registered microanomalies coincide with the high-halite and ozokeritic Miocene salt-bearing Vorotyshcha beds. The distribution of the microanomalies reveals neither their correlation with the thickness of overburdens, nor any gravity impact of numerous abandoned wells. Gravity anomalies were mostly connected with the lithology of sediments and rocks obtained from geological boreholes drilled in the years 2007 and 2008, on the basis of which the anomalies' origin could be determined. A concentric, relatively negative gravity microanomaly of ca. 25 m in diameter was registered in the place, where very well preserved relics of the woolly rhinoceros had been found. They may be indicative of the existence of Pleistocene lakes (and/or palaeoswamps), into which the woolly rhinoceroses had sunk. Hence, an assumption can be made that the further search for successive zoological relics can be made in areas with similar anomalies under the low-density sub-Quaternary subcrop.

Słowa kluczowe : geophysics, microgravity, Quaternary sediments, Starunia, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 365 – 374
Bibliografia : Adamenko, O. M., Stelmakh, O. R., Zinchuk, M. S. & Kotarba, M. J., 2005. History of petroleum exploration in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 53- 61.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2004. Starunia and the Quaternary research in the tradition and initiatives of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. (In Polish, English summary). Studia i materiały do dziejów Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności. Polska Akademia Umiejętności, Kraków, 3, 261 pp.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2005. The history of Starunia – a palaeontologic site and old ozokeritemine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 21-38.
Fajklewicz, Z., 1980. Mikrograwimetria górnicza. (In Polish). Wydawnictwo Śląsk, Katowice, 264 pp.
Fajklewicz, Z., 2007. Grawimetria stosowana. (In Polish). Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne, AGH, Kraków, 433 pp.
Griffin, W. R., 1949. Residual gravity in theory and practice. Geophys ics, 14, 1: 39-56.
Koltun, Y. V., Dudok, I. V., Kotarba, M. J., Adamenko, O. M., Pavluk, M. I., Burzewski, W. & Stelmach, O. R., 2005. Geological setting and petroleum occurrence of the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 61-77.
Korin, S. S., 2005. Miocene salt-bearing Vorotyshcha Beds in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004- 2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 79-86.
Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), 2005. Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków, 218 pp.
Kotarba, M. J., 2009. Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 219-241.
Kotarba, M. J. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2008. Wyjątkowe stanowisko paleontologiczne i środowisko osadów plejstoceńskich, w których znaleziono nosorożce włochate w Staruni (Karpaty Wschodnie). (In Polish). Przegląd Geologiczny, 56: 442-452.
Kotarba, M. J., Więcław, D., Toboła, T., Zych, H., Kowalski, A. & Ptak, S., 2009. Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 447-461.
Madej, J. & Porzucek, S., 2005. Elements of geological setting of for merozokerite mine based on gravity survey in Starunia, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 115-124.
Mitura, F., 1944. Geologia złoża wosku w Staruni. (In Polish). Unpublished report, Archive of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 18 ms. pp.
Porzucek, S., 2004. Dekonwolucja Eulera w interpretacji ilościowej wyników badań mikrograwimetrycznych. (In Polish). Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Archives of the AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, 105 pp.
Porzucek, S. & Madej, J., 2009. Recognition of geological structures at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on gravity surveys. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 357-363.
Sokołowski, T. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2009. Chronostratigraphy and changes of environment of Late Pleistocene and Holocene at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 315-331.
Sokołowski, T., Stachowicz-Rybka, R. & Woronko, B., 2009. Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 255-278.
Stachowicz-Rybka, R., Granoszewski, W. & Hrynowiecka- Czmielewska, A., 2009. Quaternary environmental changes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on palaeobotanical studies. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 279-288.
Thomp son, D. T., 1982. EULDPH – A new technique formaking computer-assisted depth estimates from magnetic data. Geophys ics, 47: 31-37.
DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Porzucek, S. ,Porzucek, S. , Detection of near-surface geological heterogeneity at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on microgravity survey. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
[Top]

Surface geochemical survey at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Surface geochemical survey at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Sechman, H.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, sechman@agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : A surface geochemical survey was carried out in an abandoned ozokerite mine in Starunia, where remnants of a mammoth and three woolly rhinoceroses and one almost completely preserved rhinoceros carcass were found in 1907 and 1929. In total, 689 measurement sites were defined within the selected 300×350 m rectangle (ca. 10.5 ha). The analysed soil gases vary in their molecular and isotopic compositions. Several zones with anomalous methane concentrations over 10 vol% were identified in the study area. These anomalous concentrations correlate well with total C2-C5 alkane anomalies (over 1 vol%). The zones with carbon dioxide concentrations over 15 vol% are generally shifted SW of those, where the methane and the sum of C2-C5 alkanes anomalies were identified. High helium concentrations of crustal origin (over 0.001 vol%) are clustered near fault zones. In a majority of cases methane is of thermogenic origin, migrating to the near-surface zone from deep-seated accumulations. Microbial methane, or methane with a high microbial component, is genetically related to recent swamps. The high variability of concentrations of gaseous components together with the highly variable isotopic composition of individual gases in the soil, indicate their thermogenic and/or microbial origin, and point to the lithological diversity of Quaternary sediments in the study area. Several zones with thermogenic gaseous hydrocarbons and helium were delineated. It is likely that during the Pleistocene winters, under a thick ice and snow cover, the tundra lake and swamp zones around outflows of brines, oil, helium and thermogenic gases had a higher temperature, which resulted in melting and cracking of the ice cover. These sites would be more prospective for future search of well-preserved large vertebrates.

Słowa kluczowe : surface geochemical survey, stable carbon isotopes, methane origin, gaseous hydrocar bon C2-C5, carbon dioxide origin, woolly rhinoceros, Starunia, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 375 – 390
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Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2004. Starunia and the Quaternary research in the tradition and initiatives of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. (In Polish, English summary). Studia i materiały do dziejów Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności. Polska Akademia Umiejętności, Kraków, 3, 261 pp.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2005. The history of Starunia – a palaeontologic site and old ozokeritemine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 21-38.
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Duliński, M., Różański, K. & Kotarba, M. J., 2005. Isotopic and chemical composition of surface and groundwaters in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004- 2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 187-194.
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Kotarba, M. J., 2009. Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 219-241.
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Porzucek, S. ,Porzucek, S. ,Sechman, H. , Surface geochemical survey at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Salinity of Quaternary sediments and halophytes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Salinity of Quaternary sediments and halophytes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Sechman, H.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, sechman@agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : Interdisciplinary geophysical, geochemical and botanical studies were performed to recognize the problem of salinity of Quaternary sediments in the place, where woolly rhinoceroses were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century. Geoelectric methods (high resolution geoelectric research with electromagnetic conductivity meter) enabled construction of maps of the distribution of conductivity of near-surface sediments. Variation of conductivity with depth was recognized with penetrometer-based geoelectric measurements. Measured conductivity mainly depends on the level of mineralization (salinity) of underground water filling the pores and voids of poorly consolidated Quaternary sediments and partly underlying Miocene strata. Several samples were taken from geological boreholes. The analysis of these cores enabled estimation of salt (chloride ion) content in the solid phase of sediments. This content varies from place to place and with depth in an unpredictable way. The highest values reached 8.5 wt%. Generally, on the basis of a qualitative comparison, the salinity data gained from sampled cores correlate with distribution of apparent conductivity obtained with geoelectric methods. Nevertheless, in some places there is a discrepancy between geophysical and geochemical data, especially for penetrometer versus borehole data. It may be partly explained by an unavoidable difference in location of the geological borehole and penetrometer site (technically this cannot be the same place). During botanical field studies a group of vascular plants growing on saline soils (halophytes) was found. Halophytes indicate a higher salt concentration in the soil. Their aggregations are extremely rare in the Carpathian region. The pattern of halophytes distribution reflected the presence of saline water sources, and their flows and soils affected by them. Generally, the distribution of halophytes showed a good correlation with the distribution of high-conductivity anomalies determined with the surface geoelectric survey.

Słowa kluczowe : salinity, geoelectric electromagnetic survey, penetrometer-based resistivity profiling, botanical studies, halophytes, Starunia, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 391 – 402
Bibliografia : Adamenko, O. M., Kryzhanivsky, Y. I., Vekeryk, V. I., Stelmakh, O. R., Mishchenko, L. V., Zorina, N. O., Zorin, D. O. & Ambrozyak, M. V., 2005. A concept of an international “Ice-Age Geopark” as an ecological-tourist center in Starunia former ozokerite mine, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 205-210.
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Kotarba, M. J., Więcław, D., Toboła, T., Zych, H., Kowalski, A. & Ptak, S., 2009. Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 447-461.
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Porzucek, S. ,Porzucek, S. ,Sechman, H. ,Mościcki, W. J. , Salinity of Quaternary sediments and halophytes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Distribution and origin of gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide in the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Distribution and origin of gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide in the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Sechman, H.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, sechman@agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Kotarba, M. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : Near-surface gases were investigated in Starunia, where remains of mammoth and woolly rhinoceroses were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century. Samples were collected at 30 measurement sites, from 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 m depths and analysed for their molecular and isotopic compositions. Most of the methane and all higher gaseous hydrocarbons accumulated within the near-surface zone are of thermogenic origin. The distribution of thermogenic methane and higher gaseous hydrocarbons in Quaternary sediments is variable and, generally, increases with depth. Microbial methane or a mixture of microbial and thermogenic methane also occurs at the near-surface zone. The presence of hydrogen and alkenes in the near-surface gases also suggests a contribution from recent, microbial processes. Helium of crustal origin migrated through the Rinne Fault and other tectonic zones located in the study area, and was subsequently dispersed during migration through the lithologically diversified Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. The high variability of the carbon dioxide concentration and stable carbon isotope composition at various depths in the near-surface zone is caused by its polygenetic origin (thermogenic, microbial, and oxidation of hydrocarbons and Quaternary organic matter), and also by its dissolution in water and oil during migration through lithologically diversified Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. Zones of thermogenic methane occurrence within Pleistocene sediments, dominated by muds saturated with bitumen and brines, provide the most favourable environment for preservation of large extinct mammals. It is likely that during the Pleistocene winters, when thick ice and snow covered the tundra lake and swamp, zones of outflow of brines, oils, helium, and thermogenic gaseous hydrocarbons had a higher temperature, which could have resulted in melting and cracking of the ice cover and drowning of large mammals. The most favourable conditions for preservation of large, extinct mammals probably still exists in the vicinity of sampling probe sites Nos 21, 22, 23 and 36. Zones of dominance of microbial methane concentrations are less favourable sites for preservation of extinct mammals, because this methane was generated within recent swamps and also within recent descending meteoric waters which infiltrated into Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. Older Pleistocene microbial gases have already escaped to the atmosphere.

Słowa kluczowe : near-surface geochemical survey, depth gas distribution, stable carbon isotopes, gaseous hydrocarbon origin, carbon dioxide origin, Quaternary sediments, woolly rhinoceros, Starunia palaeontological site, Ukrainian Carpathians,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 403 – 419
Bibliografia : Adamenko, O. M., Stelmakh, O. R., Zinchuk, M. S. & Kotarba, M. J., 2005. History of petroleum exploration in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environ mental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 53-61.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2004. Starunia and the Quaternary research in the tradition and initiatives of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. (In Polish, English summary). Studia i materiały do dziejów Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności. Polska Akademia Umiejętności, Kraków, 3, 261 pp.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2005. The history of Starunia – a palaeontologic site and old ozokerite mine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004- 2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 21-36.
Barabasz, W., Chmiel, M. J. & Ostafin, M., 2009. Microbiological characteristics of Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 439-446.
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Curtis, J. B., Kotarba, M. J., Lewan, M. D. & Więcław, D., 2004. Oil/source rock correlations in the Polish Flysch Carpathians and Mesozoic basement and organic facies of the Oligocene Menilite Shales: insights from hydrous pyrolysis experiments. Organic Geochemistry, 35: 1573-1596.
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Koltun, Y. V., Adamenko, O. M., Kotarba, M. J., Dudok, I. V., Pavluk, M. I., Burzewski, W. & Stelmakh, O. R., 2005. Geological setting and petroleum occurrence of the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 61- 77.
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Kotarba, M. J., 2002. Composition and origin of hydrocarbons saturat ing the remnants of woolly rhinoceros from Starunia, the Ukrainian Carpathians. (In Polish, English summary). Przegląd Geologiczny, 50: 531-534.
Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), 2005. Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków, 218 pp.
Kotarba, M. J., 2009. Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discov eries and research, purposes, results and perspectives. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 219-241.
Kotarba, M. J. & Koltun, Y. V., 2006. The origin and habitat of hy rocarbons of the Polish and Ukrainian Parts of the Carpathian Province. In: Golonka, J. & Picha, F. J. (eds), The Carpathians and their foreland: geology and hydrocarbon resources. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 84: 395-442.
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Kotarba, M. J., Dzieniewicz, M. & Sechman, H., 2005a. Geochemical survey, molecular and isotopic compositions, and genetic identification of near-surface gases from the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 157- 174.
Kotarba, M. J., Więcław, D., Koltun, Y. V., Lewan, M. D., Marynowski, L. & Dudok, I. V., 2005b. Organic geochemical study and genetic correlations between source rocks and hydrocarbons from surface seeps and deep accumulations in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004- 2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 125-145.
Kotarba, M. J. & Nagao, K., 2008. Composition and ori in of natural gases accumulated in the Polish and Ukrainian parts of the Carpathian region: Gaseous hy drocarbons, noble gases, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Chemical Geology, 255: 426- 438.
Kotarba, M. J., Alexandrowicz, S. W. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2008a. Historia i program dalszych badań geologicznych na obszarze byłej kopalni ozokerytu i stanowiska paleontologicznego w Staruni (In Polish). Przegląd Geologiczny, 56: 34-441.
Kotarba, M. J., Dzieniewicz, M., Mościcki, W. J. & Sechman, H., 2008b. Unique Quaternary environment for discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses in Starunia, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine: Geochemical and geoelectric studies. Geology, 36, 7: 567-570.
Kotarba, M. J. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2008. Wyjątkowe stanowisko paleontologiczne i środowisko osadów plejstoceńskich, w których znaleziono nosorożce włochate w Staruni (Karpaty Wschodnie). (In Polish). Przegląd Geologiczny, 56: 442-452.
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Kotarba, M. J., Więcław, D., Toboła, T., Zych, H., Kowalski, A. & Ptak, S., 2009b. Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 447-461.
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Porzucek, S. ,Porzucek, S. ,Sechman, H. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Kotarba, M. J. , Distribution and origin of gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide in the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Molecular and isotopic compositions of gases adsorbed to near surface sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Molecular and isotopic compositions of gases adsorbed to near surface sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Sechman, H.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, sechman@agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Kotarba, M. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Dzieniewicz, M.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, dzieniew@agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : The near-surface geochemical survey of gases desorbed from sediment samples was carried out in the area of an abandoned ozokerite mine in Starunia, where remnants of mammoth and three woolly rhinoceroses and one almost completely preserved rhinoceros carcass were discovered in 1907 and 1929. Numerous hydrocarbon seeps (gas and oil “eyes”) occur on the surface of the study area. Analyses of molecular and stable carbon isotope compositions of adsorbed gases were carried out in two variants. The first included sampling of cuttings from 30 auger boreholes at depths of 4.8, 5.6 and 6.4 m. In total, 88 samples were collected. In the second variant core samples were collected from 17 selected boreholes. In total, 78 samples were taken from various depths to 12 m. The results of molecular composition analyses of desorbed gases indicated high saturation of near-surface sediments with the oil. The highest concentrations of alkanes were detected in Miocene strata. Hydrocarbon migration from deep accumulations to the surface was relatively fast and proceeded along the faults, fractures and cracks. In the near-surface zone hydrocarbons were subjected to oxidation and dehydrogenation, which resulted in generation of unsaturated hydrocarbons and hydrogen. These processes were most intensive in the Pleistocene sediments and in the mine dumps. Increased concentrations of hydrogen may also originate from water radiolysis in the presence of hydrocarbons. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the adsorbed gases show the higher values in comparison with the analysed gaseous compounds. However, a slight increase in CO2 concentration was detected in the mine dump, which may indicate conditions more favourable for hydrocarbon oxidation. Carbon dioxide from the analysed adsorbed gases is of thermogenic origin. Occasionally, insignificant influence of secondary hydrocarbon oxidation and/or Quaternary organic matter can be observed. Concentrations of alkanes, alkenes and carbon dioxide in the gas derived from desorption of rock samples are lower and the concentration of hydrogen is higher than those measured in free gases. This indicates that additional effects from recent (e.g. microbial) processes are absent.

Słowa kluczowe : near-surface geochemical survey, adsorbed gases, origin of gaseous hydrocarbons, origin of carbon dioxide, Quaternary sediments, Starunia palaeontological site, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 421 – 437
Bibliografia : Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2004. Starunia and the Quaternary research in the tradition and initiatives of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. (In Polish, English summary). Studia i materiały do dziejów Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności. Polska Akademia Umiejętności, Kraków, 3, 261 pp.
Alexandrowicz, S. W., 2005. The history of Starunia – a palaeontologic site and old ozokerite mine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 21-38.
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Kotarba, M. J., Sechman, H. & Dzieniewicz, M., 2009. Distribution and origin of gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide in the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 403-419.
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Mościcki, W. J., 2009. Characterization of near-surface sediments based on combined geoelectric studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 333-342.
Porzucek, S. & Madej, J., 2009a. Recognition of geological structures at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on gravity surveys. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 357-363.
Porzucek, S. & Madej, J., 2009b Kotarba, M. J., 2002. Composition and origin of hydrocarbons saturating the remnants of woolly rhinoceros from Starunia, the Ukrainian Carpathians. (In Polish, English summary). Przegląd Geologiczny, 50: 531-534.
Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), 2005. Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków, 218 pp.
Kotarba, M. J., 2009. Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: Previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 219-241.
Kotarba, M. J., Alexandrowicz, S. W. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2008a. Historia i pro gram dalszych badań geologicznych na obszarze byłej kopalni ozokerytu i stanowiska paleontologicznego w Staruni. (In Polish). Przegląd Geologiczny, 56: 34-441.
Kotarba, M. J., Dzieniewicz, M., Mościcki, W. J. & Sechman, H., 2008b. Unique Quaternary environment for discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses in Starunia, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine: Geochemical and geoelectric studies. Geology, 36: 567-570.
Kotarba, M. J., Dzieniewicz, M. & Sechman, H., 2005. Geochemical survey, molecular and isotopic compositions, and genetic identification of near-surface gases from the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 157-174.
Kotarba, M. J. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2008. Wyjątkowe stanowisko paleontologiczne i środowisko osadów plejstoceńskich, w których znaleziono nosorożce włochate w Staruni (Karpaty Wschodnie). (In Polish). Przegląd. Detection of near-surface geological heterogeneity at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on microgravity survey. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 365- 374.
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Sechman, H., Kotarba, M. J. & Dzieniewicz, M., 2009. Surface geochemical survey at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 375-390.
Sechman, H. & Dzieniewicz, M., 2007. Influence of soil moisture on the re sults of surface geochemical survey applied to petroleum exploration. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 56, 4: 267-282.
Sokołowski, T. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2009. Chronostratigraphy and changes of environment of Late Pleistocene and Holocene at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 315-331.
Sokołowski, T., Stachowicz-Rybka, R. & Woronko, B., 2009. Upper Pleistocene and Holocene deposits at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 255-278.
Stachowicz-Rybka, R., Granoszewski, W. & Hrynowiecka- Czmielewska, A., 2009. Quaternary environmental changes at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) based on palaeobotanical studies. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 279-288.
Starobiniec, I. S., 1986. Gazokhimicheskije pokazatieli neftegazonosti i prognoz sostava uglevodorodnykh skoplenij. (In Russian). Izdatelstvo Niedra, Moskva, 200 pp.
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Porzucek, S. ,Porzucek, S. ,Sechman, H. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Kotarba, M. J. ,Dzieniewicz, M. , Molecular and isotopic compositions of gases adsorbed to near surface sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Microbiological characteristics of Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Microbiological characteristics of Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Sechman, H.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, sechman@agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Kotarba, M. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Dzieniewicz, M.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, dzieniew@agh.edu.pl,
Barabasz, W.
Department of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059, Kraków, Poland, rrbaraba@cyf-kr.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : The microbiological research on the area of the palaeontological site in Starunia (Ukraine) reveals the details of biological activity of the near-surface layers and Quaternary sediments. In Starunia area remnants of a mammoth and three woolly rhinoceroses, and one almost completely preserved rhinoceros carcass were found in 1907 and 1929. The gained quantitative results regarding the occurrence of different physiological groups of microorganisms show that their number varied significantly depending on the sampling place, sampling depth, pH, humidity and the organic matter content. The amount and differentiation of the tested groups of microorganisms typically decreased with the depth. In several deep-sampling locations there was increase in the microorganisms, especially with methanogens and methanotrophs. The metanogens occurred mainly in Pleistocene sediments, comprised of clayey mud and peat, while saprophytic microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) occur in Holocene sediments comprised of clayey mud, peat and peat mud. The quantity of microorganisms in selected boreholes was related to high concentration of the organic matter (mainly peat and peat mud) and correlated with methane occurrence.

Słowa kluczowe : microorganisms, methanogens, Holocene, Pleistocene, Starunia palaeontological site, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 439 – 446
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Porzucek, S. ,Porzucek, S. ,Sechman, H. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Kotarba, M. J. ,Dzieniewicz, M. ,Barabasz, W. , Microbiological characteristics of Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Sechman, H.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, sechman@agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Kotarba, M. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Dzieniewicz, M.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, dzieniew@agh.edu.pl,
Barabasz, W.
Department of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059, Kraków, Poland, rrbaraba@cyf-kr.edu.pl,
Kotarba, M. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : Geochemical studies were conducted on bitumen and salts saturating the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments from an abandoned ozokerite mine in Starunia. This location is noted for the discovery of remnants of a mammoth and three woolly rhinoceroses in 1907, and a nearly completely preserved rhinoceros carcass in 1929. The bitumen (oil) and brines (chloride ions) were preserving agents for the large Pleistocene mammals. The main mass of organic carbon hosted in the Pleistocene muds is related to bitumen originating from oil migrating from deep accumulations within the Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit. The highest analysed bitumen content is 9.26 wt%. The chloride ion content, originating from highly concentrated brines ascending from the salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds, vary from 0 to 4.66 wt% but this usually does not exceed 1 wt%. The natural pathways of underground fluids (oil, gas and water) migration within the Quaternary sediments were disturbed by intensive ozokerite mining operations run between the last three decades of the 19th century and 1960. Therefore, the present preservation and conservation conditions of large, extinct mammals' remains can be different from those prevailing during the Pleistocene, when the mammals were buried. Taking into consideration the contents of the remaining preservatives: chloride and bitumen, the most favourable zone for fossils conservation and preservation is located close to boreholes Nos 22, 23, 28 and 36N, where the thickness of Pleistocene muds exceeds 2 metres. Generally, the spatial distributions of bitumen and chloride ion contents within the Holocene sediments and salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds are very similar to those in the Pleistocene sediments.

Słowa kluczowe : bitumen content, chloride ion content, Pleistocene, Holocene, Starunia palaeontological site, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 447 – 461
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Kotarba, M. J., 2009. Interdisciplinary studies at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine) in the years 2006-2009: previous discoveries and research, purposes, results and perspectives. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 79: 219-241.
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Kotarba, M. J., Alexandrowicz, S. W. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2008a. Historia i program dalszych badań geologicznych na obszarze byłej kopalni ozokerytu i stanowiska paleontologicznego w Staruni. (In Polish). Przegląd Geologiczny, 56: 34-441.
Kotarba, M. J., Dzieniewicz, M., Mościcki, W. J. & Sechman, H., 2008b. Unique Quaternary environment for discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses in Starunia, fore-Carpathian re gion, Ukraine: Geochemical and geoelectric studies. Geology, 36: 567-570.
Kotarba, M. J. & Stachowicz-Rybka, R., 2008. Wyjątkowe stanowisko paleontologiczne i środowisko osadów plejstoceńskich, w których znaleziono nosorożce włochate w Staruni (Karpaty Wschodnie). (In Polish). Przegląd Geologiczny, 56: 442-452.
Kotarba, M. J., Więcław, D., Koltun, Y. V., Lewan, M. D., Marynowski, L. & Dudok, I. V., 2005a. Organic geochemical study and genetic correlations between source rocks and hydrocarbons from surface seeps and deep accumulations in the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004- 2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa- Kraków: 125-146.
Kotarba, M. J., Dzieniewicz, M. & Sechman, H., 2005b. Geochemical survey, molecular and isotopic compositions, and genetic identification of near-surface gases from the Starunia area, fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine. In: Kotarba, M. J. (ed.), Polish and Ukrainian geological studies (2004-2005) at Starunia – the area of discoveries of woolly rhinoceroses. Polish Geological Institute and Society of Research on Environmental Changes “Geosphere”, Warszawa-Kraków: 157-174.
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Porzucek, S. ,Porzucek, S. ,Sechman, H. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Kotarba, M. J. ,Dzieniewicz, M. ,Barabasz, W. ,Kotarba, M. J. , Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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Biological markers and stable carbon isotope studies of bitumen impregnating Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Czasopismo : Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
Tytuł artykułu : Biological markers and stable carbon isotope studies of bitumen impregnating Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine)

Autorzy :
Kotarba, M. J
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Kuc, T.
Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kuc@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl,
Stachowicz-Rybka, R.
W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Palaeobotany, ul. Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków, Poland, r.stachowicz@botany.pl,
Sokołowski, T.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, tsokol@uci.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Porzucek, S.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, porzucek@agh.edu.pl,
Sechman, H.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, sechman@agh.edu.pl,
Mościcki, W. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, moscicki@geol.agh.edu.pl,
Kotarba, M. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Dzieniewicz, M.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, dzieniew@agh.edu.pl,
Barabasz, W.
Department of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059, Kraków, Poland, rrbaraba@cyf-kr.edu.pl,
Kotarba, M. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Kotarba, M. J.
Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland, kotarba@agh.edu.pl,
Abstrakty : Biological markers and stable carbon isotopic compositions of bitumen impregnating the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments around the Starunia palaeontological site (Carpathian region, Ukraine) near discovered remnants of a mammoth and three woolly rhinoceroses, and one almost completely preserved rhinoceros carcass found in 1907 and 1929, were investigated. The research was carried out to assess genetic connections between the bitumen and oils from the nearby deep accumulations of the Boryslav-Pokuttya and Skyba units of the Carpathians. Another aim of these geochemical studies was to reveal the secondary geochemical processes (oxidation and biodegradation) influencing the bitumen, and to determine which environments have been favourable or unfavourable for the preservation of large Pleistocene vertebrates. Bitumen included within the near-surface rocks are not genetically connected with residual organic matter present in Quaternary sediments. Geochemical features, such as distributions of pentacyclic triterpanes and steranes, biomarker parameters and isotope composition indicate that all bitumens originate from oil-prone, Type II kerogen with insignificant admixture of terrestrial Type III kerogen in the middle stage of catagenesis. The oils occurring in deep accumulations in the Starunia area were the sole source of bitumen found in the near-surface sediments. Input of immature organic matter to bitumen from Pleistocene and Holocene sediments has not been found. The main factors differentiating the bitumen were: biodegradation, water washing and/or weathering. Additional influence of transport of bitumen by brine was found. The most favourable conditions for preservation of large, extinct mammals within the Pleistocene muds exist in the vicinity of Nos 22 and 23 boreholes, where bitumen is best preserved. The worst conditions were found in the vicinity of Nos 1, 4, 4' and 15 boreholes. Intensification of biodegradation and weathering effects were followed by intensive, chaotic changes of the remnants of large Pleistocene mammals.

Słowa kluczowe : biomarkers, stable carbon isotopes, bitumen content, oil origin, woolly rhinoceros, Starunia palaeontological site, Carpathian region, Ukraine,
Wydawnictwo : Polskie Towarzystwo Geologiczne
Rocznik : 2009
Numer : Vol. 79, No 3
Strony : 463 – 480
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DOI :
Cytuj : Kotarba, M. J ,Sokołowski, T. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Kuc, T. ,Stachowicz-Rybka, R. ,Sokołowski, T. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Porzucek, S. ,Porzucek, S. ,Sechman, H. ,Mościcki, W. J. ,Kotarba, M. J. ,Dzieniewicz, M. ,Barabasz, W. ,Kotarba, M. J. ,Kotarba, M. J. , Biological markers and stable carbon isotope studies of bitumen impregnating Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae Vol. 79, No 3/2009
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